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Accessing SQL Server from C++

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/* Accessing SQL Server from C++ */ #define DBNTWIN32 #include <stdio.h> #include <windows.h> #include <sqlfront.h> #include <sqldb.h> // Forward declarations of the error handler and message handler. int err_handler(PDBPROCESS, INT, INT, INT, LPCSTR, LPCSTR); int msg_handler(PDBPROCESS, DBINT, INT, INT, LPCSTR, LPCSTR, LPCSTR, DBUSMALLINT); main() { PDBPROCESS dbproc; // The connection with SQL Server. PLOGINREC login; // The login information. DBCHAR name[100]; DBCHAR city[100]; // Install user-supplied error- and message-handling functions. dberrhandle (err_handler); dbmsghandle (msg_handler); // Initialize DB-Library. dbinit (); // Get a LOGINREC. login = dblogin (); DBSETLUSER (login, "my_login"); DBSETLPWD (login, "my_password"); DBSETLAPP (login, "example"); // Get a DBPROCESS structure for communication with SQL Server. dbproc = dbopen (login, "my_server"); // Retrieve some columns from the authors table in the // pubs database. // First, put the command into the command buffer. dbcmd (dbproc, "SELECT au_lname, city FROM pubs..authors"); dbcmd (dbproc, " WHERE state = 'CA' "); // Send the command to SQL Server and start execution. dbsqlexec (dbproc); // Process the results. if (dbresults (dbproc) == SUCCEED) { // Bind column to program variables. dbbind (dbproc, 1, NTBSTRINGBIND, 0, name); dbbind (dbproc, 2, NTBSTRINGBIND, 0, city); // Retrieve and print the result rows. while (dbnextrow (dbproc) != NO_MORE_ROWS) { printf ("%s from %s\n", name, city); } } // Close the connection to SQL Server. dbexit (); return (0); } int err_handler (PDBPROCESS dbproc, INT severity, INT dberr, INT oserr, LPCSTR dberrstr, LPCSTR oserrstr) { printf ("DB-Library Error %i: %s\n", dberr, dberrstr); if (oserr != DBNOERR) { printf ("Operating System Error %i: %s\n", oserr, oserrstr); } return (INT_CANCEL); } int msg_handler (PDBPROCESS dbproc, DBINT msgno, INT msgstate, INT severity, LPCSTR msgtext, LPCSTR server, LPCSTR procedure, DBUSMALLINT line) { printf ("SQL Server Message %ld: %s\n", msgno, msgtext); return (0); }

In the C++ Programming Language, the #define directive allows the definition of macros within your source code. These macro definitions allow constant values to be declared for use throughout your code. Macro definitions are not variables and cannot be changed by your program code like variables. You generally use this syntax when creating constants that represent numbers, strings or expressions. The syntax for creating a constant using #define in the C++ is: #define token value

A return statement ends the processing of the current function and returns control to the caller of the function. A value-returning function should include a return statement, containing an expression. If an expression is not given on a return statement in a function declared with a non-void return type, the compiler issues an error message. If the data type of the expression is different from the function return type, conversion of the return value takes place as if the value of the expression were assigned to an object with the same function return type.

The exit function terminates the program normally. Automatic objects are not destroyed, but static objects are. Then, all functions registered with atexit are called in the opposite order of registration. The code is returned to the operating system. An exit code of 0 or EXIT_SUCCESS means successful completion. If code is EXIT_FAILURE, an indication of program failure is returned to the operating system. Other values of code are implementation-defined. Calls all functions registered with the atexit() function, and destroys C++ objects with static storage duration, all in last-in-first-out (LIFO) order. C++ objects with static storage duration are destroyed in the reverse order of the completion of their constructor. (Automatic objects are not destroyed as a result of calling exit().)

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C++ programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number. C++ array is beneficial if you have to store similar elements. For example, if we want to store the marks of a student in 6 subjects, then we don't need to define different variables for the marks in the different subject. Instead of that, we can define an array which can store the marks in each subject at the contiguous memory locations.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

C++ program encodes any message using the technique of 'One time' pad cipher technique. Input is not Case Sensitive and works only for all characters. 'White Spaces' are not ignored

Program to find longest path in DAG. Given a weighted directed acyclic graph and a source vertex s in it, find the longest distances from s to all other vertices in the given graph. Create

C++ program 'merge two files' and store the content of both file into another file. First file name and second file name (say file1.txt and file2.txt), then Third file name that is used to