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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Beginners Lab Assignments Code Examples

C++ Programming Encapsulation

/* C++ Programming Encapsulation In Object Oriented Programming, encapsulation represents binding data and functions into one container. This container hides the details of the data and the way functions process data. In C++, Class is a container that binds data and functions. The mechanism of hiding details of a class is called abstraction and it is described in "C++ Abstraction". Class encapsulates all manipulations with the data. Take a look on the example: */ class myStack { //interface of class myStack //this is only accessible for user public: //allocate memory for stack myStack(int _size = 50) { size = _size; stack = new int[size]; //initially stack is empty top = -1; } //add value to stack bool push(int i) { if (isFull()) return false; else { top++; stack[top] = i; } } int pop() { if (isEmpty()) throw new exception("Stack is empty"); else { return stack[top--]; } } //hidden data members and member functions private: //return true if stack is full bool isFull() { return size == top - 1; } bool isEmpty() { return top == -1; } int size; int* stack; int top; };

LIFO stack. Stacks are a type of container adaptor, specifically designed to operate in a LIFO context (last-in first-out), where elements are inserted and extracted only from one end of the container. stacks are implemented as container adaptors, which are classes that use an encapsulated object of a specific container class as its underlying container, providing a specific set of member functions to access its elements. Elements are pushed/popped from the "back" of the specific container, which is known as the top of the stack.

Allocate storage space. Default allocation functions (single-object form). A new operator is used to create the object while a delete operator is used to delete the object. When the object is created by using the new operator, then the object will exist until we explicitly use the delete operator to delete the object. Therefore, we can say that the lifetime of the object is not related to the block structure of the program.

Insert element. Inserts a new element at the top of the stack, above its current top element. The content of this new element is initialized to a copy of val. This member function effectively calls the member function push_back of the underlying container object. C++ Stack push () function is used for adding new elements at the top of the stack. If we have an array of type stack and by using the push() function we can insert new elements in the stack. The elements are inserted at the top of the stack. The element which is inserted most initially is deleted at the end and vice versa as stacks follow LIFO principle.

In C++, constructor is a special method which is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the data members of new object generally. The constructor in C++ has the same name as class or structure. Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object. • Default Constructor: A constructor which has no argument is known as default constructor. It is invoked at the time of creating object.

Abstraction is one of the feature of Object Oriented Programming, where you show only relevant details to the user and hide irrelevant details. For example, when you send an email to someone you just click send and you get the success message, what actually happens when you click send, how data is transmitted over network to the recipient is hidden from you (because it is irrelevant to you). • Data Abstraction is a process of providing only the essential details to the outside world and hiding the internal details, i.e., representing only the essential details in the program. • Data Abstraction is a programming technique that depends on the seperation of the interface and implementation details of the program. • Let's take a real life exa

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.

Encapsulation is a process of combining data members and functions in a single unit called class. This is to prevent the access to the data directly, the access to them is provided through the functions of the class. It is one of the popular feature of Object Oriented Programming(OOPs) that helps in data hiding. • In C++, the encapsulation is a process of combining data members and functions in a single unit known as class. • This is to prevent the access to the data directly and the access to them is provided through the function of the class. It is one of the most important features of object oriented programming that helps in data hiding.

Finding the transitive closure using Warshall's Algorithm. The Transitive Closure of a binary relation R on a set X is the 'transitive relation' R+ on set X such that R+ contains R and R+ is

A function is block of code which is used to perform a particular task, for example let's say you are writing a "Larger C++ Program", in that program you want to do a particular

This is a program from numerical to calculate the 'root' of the given system, it will check its conditions and perform the operation on that system, esle it will tell you that system is not