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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Beginners Lab Assignments Code Examples

Global variables are variables that are often declared outside the main() function.

/* Global variables are variables that are often declared outside the main() function. The variable scope is the full file where the variable is defined. The global variable can be defined as below: */ //include a header file from Standard Library #include using namespace std; //This is GLOBAL VARIABLE int weight; //the work of the program starts from function called main int main() { weight = 3; //Now weight is equal to 3 cout << "Weight is " << weight << endl; cin.ignore(); return 0; }

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

Extract and discard characters. Extracts characters from the input sequence and discards them, until either n characters have been extracted, or one compares equal to delim. The function also stops extracting characters if the end-of-file is reached. If this is reached prematurely (before either extracting n characters or finding delim), the function sets the eofbit flag. Internally, the function accesses the input sequence by first constructing a sentry object (with noskipws set to true). Then (if good), it extracts characters from its associated stream buffer object as if calling its member functions sbumpc or sgetc, and finally destroys the sentry object before returning. Function returns the istream object (*this).

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

A return statement ends the processing of the current function and returns control to the caller of the function. A value-returning function should include a return statement, containing an expression. If an expression is not given on a return statement in a function declared with a non-void return type, the compiler issues an error message. If the data type of the expression is different from the function return type, conversion of the return value takes place as if the value of the expression were assigned to an object with the same function return type.

The function in C++ language is also known as procedure or subroutine in other programming languages. To perform any task, we can create function. A function can be called many times. It provides modularity and code reusability. Functions are used to provide modularity to a program. Creating an application using function makes it easier to understand, edit, check... Function declaration, is done to tell the compiler about the existence of the function. Function's return type, its name & parameter list is mentioned. Function body is written in its definition. Functions are called by their names. If the function is without argument, it can be called directly using its name. But for functions with arguments, we have two ways to call them:

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.