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String overloaded equality and relational operators

/* String overloaded equality and relational operators */ #include <iostream> using std::cout; using std::endl; #include <string> using std::string; int main() { string s1( "AA" ); string s2( " AAB" ); string s3; // cout << "s1 is \"" << s1 << "\"; s2 is \"" << s2 << "\"; s3 is \"" << s3 << '\"' << "\n\nThe results of comparing s2 and s1:" << "\ns2 == s1 yields " << ( s2 == s1 ? "true" : "false" ) << "\ns2 != s1 yields " << ( s2 != s1 ? "true" : "false" ) << "\ns2 > s1 yields " << ( s2 > s1 ? "true" : "false" ) << "\ns2 < s1 yields " << ( s2 < s1 ? "true" : "false" ) << "\ns2 >= s1 yields " << ( s2 >= s1 ? "true" : "false" ) << "\ns2 <= s1 yields " << ( s2 <= s1 ? "true" : "false" ); return 0; } /* s1 is "AA"; s2 is " AAB"; s3 is "" The results of comparing s2 and s1: s2 == s1 yields false s2 != s1 yields true s2 > s1 yields false s2 < s1 yields true s2 >= s1 yields false s2 <= s1 yields true */

A return statement ends the processing of the current function and returns control to the caller of the function. A value-returning function should include a return statement, containing an expression. If an expression is not given on a return statement in a function declared with a non-void return type, the compiler issues an error message. If the data type of the expression is different from the function return type, conversion of the return value takes place as if the value of the expression were assigned to an object with the same function return type.

Strings are objects that represent sequences of characters. The standard string class provides support for such objects with an interface similar to that of a standard container of bytes, but adding features specifically designed to operate with strings of single-byte characters. The string class is an instantiation of the basic_string class template that uses char (i.e., bytes) as its character type, with its default char_traits and allocator types. Note that this class handles bytes independently of the encoding used: If used to handle sequences of multi-byte or variable-length characters (such as UTF-8), all members of this class (such as length or size), as well as its iterators, will still operate in terms of bytes (not actual encoded characters).

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

A relational operator is used to check the relationship between two operands. C++ Relational Operators are used to relate or compare given operands. Relational operations are like checking if two operands are equal or not equal, greater or lesser, etc. Relational Operators are also called Comparison Operators.

Relational operators for string. Performs the appropriate comparison operation between the string objects lhs and rhs. The functions use string::compare for the comparison. These operators are overloaded in header <string>. If strings are compared using relational operators then, their characters are compared lexicographically according to the current character traits, means it starts comparison character by character starting from the first character until the characters in both strings are equal or a NULL character is encountered.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

n C++, we can change the way operators work for user-defined types like objects and structures. This is known as operator overloading. Suppose we have created three objects c1, c2 and result from a class named Complex that represents complex numbers. Since operator overloading allows us to change how operators work, we can redefine how the + operator works and use it to add the complex numbers of c1 and c2 by writing the following code:

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.






First we have to clear about what is transpose of a matrix. Its to replace the number of rows with number of colums, vice versa to make a new matrix. So for example if a matrix 'A' has


To copy string in C++ language, enter a string to "make copy" to another variable say str2 of same type using Function strcpy() and display the copied string on the screen as shown here