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C++ Programming Code Examples

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Swap elements in first five elements of an array with elements

/* Swap elements in first five elements of an array with elements in last five elements */ #include <iostream> using std::cout; using std::endl; #include <algorithm> #include <iterator> int main() { int a[ 10 ] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 }; std::ostream_iterator< int > output( cout, " " ); cout << "Array a contains:\n "; std::copy( a, a + 10, output ); std::swap_ranges( a, a + 5, a + 5 ); std::copy( a, a + 10, output ); cout << endl; return 0; } /* Array a contains: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 */

Ostream iterators are output iterators that write sequentially to an output stream (such as cout). They are constructed from a basic_ostream object, to which they become associated, so that whenever an assignment operator (=) is used on the ostream_iterator (dereferenced or not) it inserts a new element into the stream. Optionally, a delimiter can be specified on construction. This delimiter is written to the stream after each element is inserted.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C++ programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number. C++ array is beneficial if you have to store similar elements. For example, if we want to store the marks of a student in 6 subjects, then we don't need to define different variables for the marks in the different subject. Instead of that, we can define an array which can store the marks in each subject at the contiguous memory locations.

Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result. • Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

copy() function is used to copy items from one iterator to another iterator with a specific range. We can define the start and end position of the source and it will copy all items in this rage to a different destination. To use copy() function, we need to include <bits/stdc+.h> or header file. It copies all the elements pointed by first and last. first element is included in the output but last is not. output is the start position of the final result iterator. It returns one iterator to the end of the destination range where elements have been copied. Function returns an iterator to the end of the destination range where elements have been copied.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Put character. Inserts character c into the stream. Internally, the function accesses the output sequence by first constructing a sentry object. Then (if good), it inserts c into its associated stream buffer object as if calling its member function sputc, and finally destroys the sentry object before returning. Function returns the ostream object (*this).

Exchange values of two ranges. Exchanges the values of each of the elements in the range [first1,last1) with those of their respective elements in the range beginning at first2. std::swap is used for swapping of elements between two containers. One of its variation is std::swap_ranges, which as the name suggests is used for swapping the elements within a range. It simply exchanges the values of each of the elements in the range [first1, last1) with those of their respective elements in the range beginning at first2. If we look at its internal working, we will find that this function itself uses std::swap(). The function calls swap (unqualified) to exchange the elements.

A 'prime number' is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. The C++ Programming Language allows you to separate program-specific data



To sort strings in alphabetical order, you have to ask to the user to enter the two string, now start comparing the strings, and if found then make a t variable of same type, and place the