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C++ Programming Code Examples

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Use dynamic_cast to convert object pointer to its subclass

/* Use dynamic_cast to convert object pointer to its subclass */ #include <typeinfo> #include <iostream> using namespace std; class Base{ public: Base() {}; virtual ~Base() {} }; class Derived : public Base{ public: Derived() {} virtual ~Derived() {} }; int main(int argc, char** argv){ Base* b; Derived* d = new Derived(); b = d; d = dynamic_cast<Derived*>(b); Base base; Derived derived; Base& br = base; try { Derived& dr = dynamic_cast<Derived&>(br); } catch (bad_cast&) { cout << "Bad cast!\n"; } return (0); }

Allocate storage space. Default allocation functions (single-object form). A new operator is used to create the object while a delete operator is used to delete the object. When the object is created by using the new operator, then the object will exist until we explicitly use the delete operator to delete the object. Therefore, we can say that the lifetime of the object is not related to the block structure of the program.

Return base iterator. Returns a copy of the base iterator. The base iterator is an iterator of the same type as the one used to construct the reverse_iterator, but pointing to the element next to the one the reverse_iterator is currently pointing to (a reverse_iterator has always an offset of -1 with respect to its base iterator). The function does not accept any parameter. Function returns a copy of the base iterator, which iterates in the opposite direction.

Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result. • Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used.

A C++ virtual function is a member function in the base class that you redefine in a derived class. It is declared using the virtual keyword. It is used to tell the compiler to perform dynamic linkage or late binding on the function. There is a necessity to use the single pointer to refer to all the objects of the different classes. So, we create the pointer to the base class that refers to all the derived objects. But, when base class pointer contains the address of the derived class object, always executes the base class function. This issue can only be resolved by using the 'virtual' function. A 'virtual' is a keyword preceding the normal declaration of a function.

When executing C++ code, different errors can occur: coding errors made by the programmer, errors due to wrong input, or other unforeseeable things. When an error occurs, C++ will normally stop and generate an error message. The technical term for this is: C++ will throw an exception (throw an error). An exception is a problem that arises during the execution of a program. A C++ exception is a response to an exceptional circumstance that arises while a program is running, such as an attempt to divide by zero. Exceptions provide a way to transfer control from one part of a program to another. C++ exception handling is built upon three keywords: try, catch, and throw. The try and catch keywords come in pairs:

A cast is a special operator that forces one data type to be converted into another. As an operator, a cast is unary and has the same precedence as any other unary operator. Converting an expression of a given type into another type is known as type-casting. The most general cast supported by most of the C++ compilers is as follows:

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

A destructor is a special member function that works just opposite to constructor, unlike constructors that are used for initializing an object, destructors destroy (or delete) the object. Destructors in C++ are members functions in a class that delete an object. They are called when the class object goes out of scope such as when the function ends, the program ends, a delete variable is called etc. Destructors are different from normal member functions as they don't take any argument and don't return anything. Also, destructors have the same name as their class and their name is preceded by a tilde(~).

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

In C++, constructor is a special method which is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the data members of new object generally. The constructor in C++ has the same name as class or structure. Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object. • Default Constructor: A constructor which has no argument is known as default constructor. It is invoked at the time of creating object.

The pointer in C++ language is a variable, it is also known as locator or indicator that points to an address of a value. In C++, a pointer refers to a variable that holds the address of another variable. Like regular variables, pointers have a data type. For example, a pointer of type integer can hold the address of a variable of type integer. A pointer of character type can hold the address of a variable of character type. You should see a pointer as a symbolic representation of a memory address. With pointers, programs can simulate call-by-reference. They can also create and manipulate dynamic data structures. In C++, a pointer variable refers to a variable pointing to a specific address in a memory pointed by another variable.

To "count total number" of words used in any sentence in C++, you have to ask to enter the sentence. And then, to count total number of words present in the string, search for spaces

Takes the input of the 'number of vertex'. For each pair of vertex ask user whether they are connected or not. Print the adjacency matrix. A function to print the adjacency matrix. And

A Queue Node (Queue is implemented using Doubly Linked List). And a FIFO collection of Queue Nodes. A hash (Collection of pointers to Queue Nodes). A utility function to create

Local variables are declared inside the braces of any "user defined function", main function, loops or control statements(if, if-else etc) and have their scope limited inside those "braces"