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C++ Programming Code Examples

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Use reverse iterators.

/* Use reverse iterators. */ #include <iostream> #include <deque> using namespace std; int main() { deque<int> dequeObject; deque<int>::reverse_iterator rp; int i; for(i = 0; i <10; i++) dequeObject.push_back(i); cout << "Contents printed backward:\n"; rp = dequeObject.rbegin(); while(rp != dequeObject.rend()) { cout << *rp << " "; rp++; } cout << "\n\n"; cout << "Contents printed forward:\n"; rp = dequeObject.rend(); while(rp != dequeObject.rbegin()) { rp--; cout << *rp << " "; } return 0; }

Return reverse iterator to reverse end. Returns a reverse iterator pointing to the theoretical element preceding the first element in the deque container (which is considered its reverse end). The deque::rend() is an inbuilt function in C++ STL which returns a reverse iterator which points to the position before the beginning of the deque (which is considered its reverse end). The range between deque::rbegin and deque::rend contains all the elements of the deque container (in reverse order). This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns a reverse iterator to the reverse end of the sequence container.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result. • Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

Add element at the end. Adds a new element at the end of the deque container, after its current last element. The content of val is copied (or moved) to the new element. This effectively increases the container size by one. push_back() function is used to push elements into a deque from the back. The new value is inserted into the deque at the end, before the current last element and the container size is increased by 1. This function does not return any value.

Return reverse iterator to reverse beginning. Returns a reverse iterator pointing to the last element in the container (i.e., its reverse beginning). Reverse iterators iterate backwards: increasing them moves them towards the beginning of the container. rbegin points to the element right before the one that would be pointed to by member end. Notice that unlike member deque::back, which returns a reference to this same element, this function returns a reverse random access iterator. This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns a reverse iterator to the reverse beginning of the sequence container.

This class reverses the direction in which a bidirectional or random-access iterator iterates through a range. A copy of the original iterator (the base iterator) is kept internally and used to reflect the operations performed on the reverse_iterator: whenever the reverse_iterator is incremented, its base iterator is decreased, and vice versa. A copy of the base iterator with the current state can be obtained at any time by calling member base. Notice however that when an iterator is reversed, the reversed version does not point to the same element in the range, but to the one preceding it. This is so, in order to arrange for the past-the-end element of a range: An iterator pointing to a past-the-end element in a range, when reversed, is pointing to the last element (not past it) of the range (this would be the first element of the reversed range). And if an iterator to the first element in a range is reversed, the reversed iterator points to the element before the first element

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

deque (usually pronounced like "deck") is an irregular acronym of double-ended queue. Double-ended queues are sequence containers with dynamic sizes that can be expanded or contracted on both ends (either its front or its back). Specific libraries may implement deques in different ways, generally as some form of dynamic array. But in any case, they allow for the individual elements to be accessed directly through random access iterators, with storage handled automatically by expanding and contracting the container as needed. Therefore, they provide a functionality similar to vectors, but with efficient insertion and deletion of elements also at the beginning of the sequence, and not only at its end. But, unlike vectors, deques are not guaranteed to store all its elements in contiguous storage locations: accessing elements in a deque by offsetting a pointer to another element causes undefined behavior.

In graph theory, an "edge coloring" of a graph is an assignment of colors to the edges of the graph so that no two adjacent edges have the same color. Any "2 edges" connected to same

"Built-in Functions" are also known as library functions. We need not to declare and define these functions as they are already written in the C++ libraries such as iostream, cmath etc.