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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Code Snippets Code Examples

Checking If Two Containers Are Equal with == operator

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/* Checking If Two Containers Are Equal with == operator */ #include <algorithm> #include <iostream> #include <list> #include <vector> using namespace std; int main( ) { short v[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 }; vector<short> v1( v,v + sizeof( v ) / sizeof( v[0] ) ); vector<short> v2( v1 ); if( v1 == v2 ) cout << "The vectors are equal" << endl; else cout << "The vectors are not equal" << endl; reverse( v2.begin(), v2.end() ); if( v1 == v2 ) cout << "The vector and reversed vector are equal" << endl; else cout << "The vector and reversed vector are not equal" << endl; }
If Else Statement in C++
In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement,
Syntax for If Statement in C++
if (condition) { // body of if statement }
The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.
Syntax for If...Else Statement
if (condition) { // block of code if condition is true } else { // block of code if condition is false }
The if..else statement evaluates the condition inside the parenthesis. If the condition evaluates true, the code inside the body of if is executed, the code inside the body of else is skipped from execution. If the condition evaluates false, the code inside the body of else is executed, the code inside the body of if is skipped from execution. The if...else statement is used to execute a block of code among two alternatives. However, if we need to make a choice between more than two alternatives, we use the if...else if...else statement.
Syntax for If...Else...Else If Statement in C++
if (condition1) { // code block 1 } else if (condition2){ // code block 2 } else { // code block 3 }
• If condition1 evaluates to true, the code block 1 is executed. • If condition1 evaluates to false, then condition2 is evaluated. • If condition2 is true, the code block 2 is executed. • If condition2 is false, the code block 3 is executed. There can be more than one else if statement but only one if and else statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
Syntax for If Else If Ladder in C++
if (condition) statement 1; else if (condition) statement 2; . . else statement;
Working of the if-else-if ladder: 1. Control falls into the if block. 2. The flow jumps to Condition 1. 3. Condition is tested. If Condition yields true, goto Step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 5. 4. The present block is executed. Goto Step 7. 5. The flow jumps to Condition 2. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 6. 6. The flow jumps to Condition 3. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, execute else block. Goto Step 7. 7. Exits the if-else-if ladder. • The if else ladder statement in C++ programming language is used to check set of conditions in sequence. • This is useful when we want to selectively executes one code block(out of many) based on certain conditions. • It allows us to check for multiple condition expressions and execute different code blocks for more than two conditions. • A condition expression is tested only when all previous if conditions in if-else ladder is false. • If any of the conditional expression evaluates to true, then it will execute the corresponding code block and exits whole if-else ladder.
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/* If Else Statement in C++ Language */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // local variable declaration: int a = 100; // check the boolean condition if( a < 20 ) { // if condition is true then print the following cout << "a is less than 20;" << endl; } else { // if condition is false then print the following cout << "a is not less than 20;" << endl; } cout << "value of a is : " << a << endl; return 0; }
main() Function in C++
A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.
Syntax for main() Function in C++
void main() { ............ ............ }
void
void is a keyword in C++ language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value.
main
main is a name of function which is predefined function in C++ library. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value. 1) It cannot be used anywhere in the program a) in particular, it cannot be called recursively b) its address cannot be taken 2) It cannot be predefined and cannot be overloaded: effectively, the name main in the global namespace is reserved for functions (although it can be used to name classes, namespaces, enumerations, and any entity in a non-global namespace, except that a function called "main" cannot be declared with C language linkage in any namespace). 3) It cannot be defined as deleted or (since C++11) declared with C language linkage, constexpr (since C++11), consteval (since C++20), inline, or static. 4) The body of the main function does not need to contain the return statement: if control reaches the end of main without encountering a return statement, the effect is that of executing return 0;. 5) Execution of the return (or the implicit return upon reaching the end of main) is equivalent to first leaving the function normally (which destroys the objects with automatic storage duration) and then calling std::exit with the same argument as the argument of the return. (std::exit then destroys static objects and terminates the program). 6) (since C++14) The return type of the main function cannot be deduced (auto main() {... is not allowed). 7) (since C++20) The main function cannot be a coroutine.
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/* simple code example by main() function in C++ */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int day = 4; switch (day) { case 1: cout << "Monday"; break; case 2: cout << "Tuesday"; break; case 3: cout << "Wednesday"; break; case 4: cout << "Thursday"; break; case 5: cout << "Friday"; break; case 6: cout << "Saturday"; break; case 7: cout << "Sunday"; break; } return 0; }
Vector Relational Operators in C++
Relational operators for vector. Performs the appropriate comparison operation between the vector containers lhs and rhs. In C++, relational and logical operators compare two or more operands and return either true or false values. The equality comparison (operator==) is performed by first comparing sizes, and if they match, the elements are compared sequentially using operator==, stopping at the first mismatch (as if using algorithm equal). The less-than comparison (operator<) behaves as if using algorithm lexicographical_compare, which compares the elements sequentially using operator< in a reciprocal manner (i.e., checking both a<b and b<a) and stopping at the first occurrence.
Syntax for Vector Relational Operators in C++
#include <vector> //(1) template <class T, class Alloc> bool operator== (const vector<T,Alloc>& lhs, const vector<T,Alloc>& rhs); //(2) template <class T, class Alloc> bool operator!= (const vector<T,Alloc>& lhs, const vector<T,Alloc>& rhs); //(3) template <class T, class Alloc> bool operator< (const vector<T,Alloc>& lhs, const vector<T,Alloc>& rhs); //(4) template < class T, class Alloc> bool operator<= (const vector<T,Alloc>& lhs, const vector<T,Alloc>& rhs); //(5) template <class T, class Alloc> bool operator> (const vector<T,Alloc>& lhs, const vector<T,Alloc>& rhs); //(6) template <class T, class Alloc> bool operator>= (const vector<T,Alloc>& lhs, const vector<T,Alloc>& rhs);
lhs, rhs
vector containers (to the left- and right-hand side of the operator, respectively), having both the same template parameters (T and Alloc). The other operations also use the operators == and < internally to compare the elements, behaving as if the following equivalent operations were performed: operation and equivalent operation • a!=b !(a==b) • a>b b<a • a<=b !(b<a) • a>=b !(a<b) These operators are overloaded in header <vector>. Function returns true if the condition holds, and false otherwise.
Complexity
For (1) and (2), constant if the sizes of lhs and rhs differ, and up to linear in that size (equality comparisons) otherwise. For the others, up to linear in the smaller size (each representing two comparisons with operator<).
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
Both containers, lhs and rhs, are accessed. Up to all of their contained elements may be accessed. In any case, the function cannot modify its arguments (const-qualified).
Exception safety
If the type of the elements supports the appropriate operation with no-throw guarantee, the function never throws exceptions (no-throw guarantee).
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/* Relational and equality operators (<, <=, >, >=, ==, !=) are defined to operate on scalars and produce scalar Boolean results. For vector results, use the following built-in functions. In all cases, the sizes of all the input and return vectors for any particular call must match. */ /* vector comparisons by vector relational operators code example */ #include <iostream> #include <vector> int main () { std::vector<int> foo (3,100); // three ints with a value of 100 std::vector<int> bar (2,200); // two ints with a value of 200 if (foo==bar) std::cout << "foo and bar are equal\n"; if (foo!=bar) std::cout << "foo and bar are not equal\n"; if (foo< bar) std::cout << "foo is less than bar\n"; if (foo> bar) std::cout << "foo is greater than bar\n"; if (foo<=bar) std::cout << "foo is less than or equal to bar\n"; if (foo>=bar) std::cout << "foo is greater than or equal to bar\n"; return 0; }
reverse() Function in C++
Reverse range. Reverses the order of the elements in the range [first,last). C++ Algorithm reverse() function is used to reverse the order of the elements within a range [first, last). std::reverse() is a built-in function in C++'s Standard Template Library. The function takes in a beginning iterator, an ending iterator, and reverses the order of the element in the given range. The function calls iter_swap to swap the elements to their new locations.
Syntax for reverse() Function in C++
template <class BidirectionalIterator> void reverse (BidirectionalIterator first, BidirectionalIterator last);
first
A bidirectional iterator pointing the position of the first element in the range in which the elements are being reversed.
last
A forward iterator pointing the position one past the final element in the range in which the elements are being reversed. Bidirectional iterators to the initial and final positions of the sequence to be reversed. The range used is [first,last), which contains all the elements between first and last, including the element pointed by first but not the element pointed by last. BidirectionalIterator shall point to a type for which swap is properly defined. This function does not return any value. The range used is [first, last), which contains all the elements between first and last, including the element pointed by first but not the element pointed by last. Bidirectional Iterator is an iterator which is used to access any elements of a container in both forward and backward direction.
Complexity
Linear in half the distance between first and last: Swaps elements.
Data races
The objects in the range [first,last) are modified.
Exceptions
Throws if either an element swap or an operation on an iterator throws. Note that invalid arguments cause undefined behavior.
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/* reverses the order of the elements in the range [first, last) of any container by reverse() function code example */ // CPP program to illustrate std::reverse() function of STL #include <algorithm> #include <iostream> #include <vector> using namespace std; int main() { vector<int> vec1; vector<int>::iterator p; // Inserting elements in vector for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) { vec1.push_back(i + 10); } // Displaying elements of vector cout<<"Initial Vector:"<<endl; for(p = vec1.begin(); p < vec1.end(); p++) { cout << *p << " "; } cout << endl; cout << "Reverse only from index 5 to 7 in vector:\n"; // Reversing elements from index 5 to index 7 reverse(vec1.begin() + 5, vec1.begin() + 8); // Displaying elements of vector after Reversing for (p = vec1.begin(); p < vec1.end(); p++) { cout << *p << " "; } cout << endl <<endl; vector<int> vec2{ 4, 5, 6, 7 }; cout<<"Initial Vector:"<<endl; for (p = vec2.begin(); p < vec2.end(); p++) { cout << *p << " "; } cout << endl; cout << "Reverse full Vector:"<<endl; // Reversing directly from beginning to end reverse(vec2.begin(), vec2.end()); // Displaying elements of vector after Reversing for (p = vec2.begin(); p < vec2.end(); p++) { cout << *p << " "; } cout << endl; return 0; }
Namespaces in C++ Language
Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code. A namespace is designed to overcome this difficulty and is used as additional information to differentiate similar functions, classes, variables etc. with the same name available in different libraries. Using namespace, you can define the context in which names are defined. In essence, a namespace defines a scope.
Defining a Namespace
A namespace definition begins with the keyword namespace followed by the namespace name as follows:
namespace namespace_name { // code declarations }
To call the namespace-enabled version of either function or variable, prepend (::) the namespace name as follows:
name::code; // code could be variable or function.
Using Directive
You can also avoid prepending of namespaces with the using namespace directive. This directive tells the compiler that the subsequent code is making use of names in the specified namespace.
Discontiguous Namespaces
A namespace can be defined in several parts and so a namespace is made up of the sum of its separately defined parts. The separate parts of a namespace can be spread over multiple files. So, if one part of the namespace requires a name defined in another file, that name must still be declared. Writing a following namespace definition either defines a new namespace or adds new elements to an existing one:
namespace namespace_name { // code declarations }
Nested Namespaces
Namespaces can be nested where you can define one namespace inside another name space as follows:
namespace namespace_name1 { // code declarations namespace namespace_name2 { // code declarations } }
• Namespace is a feature added in C++ and not present in C. • A namespace is a declarative region that provides a scope to the identifiers (names of the types, function, variables etc) inside it. • Multiple namespace blocks with the same name are allowed. All declarations within those blocks are declared in the named scope. • Namespace declarations appear only at global scope. • Namespace declarations can be nested within another namespace. • Namespace declarations don't have access specifiers. (Public or private) • No need to give semicolon after the closing brace of definition of namespace. • We can split the definition of namespace over several units.
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/* namespaces in C++ language */ // A C++ code to demonstrate that we can define // methods outside namespace. #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Creating a namespace namespace ns { void display(); class happy { public: void display(); }; } // Defining methods of namespace void ns::happy::display() { cout << "ns::happy::display()\n"; } void ns::display() { cout << "ns::display()\n"; } // Driver code int main() { ns::happy obj; ns::display(); obj.display(); return 0; }
Vectors in C++ Language
In C++, vectors are used to store elements of similar data types. However, unlike arrays, the size of a vector can grow dynamically. That is, we can change the size of the vector during the execution of a program as per our requirements. Vectors are part of the C++ Standard Template Library. To use vectors, we need to include the vector header file in our program.
Declaration for Vectors in C++
std::vector<T> vector_name;
The type parameter <T> specifies the type of the vector. It can be any primitive data type such as int, char, float, etc.
Initialization for Vectors in C++
// Vector initialization method 1 // Initializer list vector<int> vector1 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
We are initializing the vector by providing values directly to the vector. vector1 is initialized with values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
// Vector initialization method 2 vector<int> vector3(5, 12);
Here, 5 is the size of the vector and 8 is the value. This code creates an int vector with size 5 and initializes the vector with the value of 8. So, the vector is equivalent to
vector<int> vector2 = {8, 8, 8, 8, 8};
The vector class provides various methods to perform different operations on vectors. Add Elements to a Vector: To add a single element into a vector, we use the push_back() function. It inserts an element into the end of the vector. Access Elements of a Vector: In C++, we use the index number to access the vector elements. Here, we use the at() function to access the element from the specified index. Change Vector Element: We can change an element of the vector using the same at() function. Delete Elements from C++ Vectors: To delete a single element from a vector, we use the pop_back() function. In C++, the vector header file provides various functions that can be used to perform different operations on a vector. • size(): returns the number of elements present in the vector. • clear(): removes all the elements of the vector. • front(): returns the first element of the vector. • back(): returns the last element of the vector. • empty(): returns 1 (true) if the vector is empty. • capacity(): check the overall size of a vector. Vector iterators are used to point to the memory address of a vector element. In some ways, they act like pointers.
Syntax for Vector Iterators in C++
vector<T>::iterator iteratorName;
We can initialize vector iterators using the begin() and end() functions. The begin() function returns an iterator that points to the first element of the vector. The end() function points to the theoretical element that comes after the final element of the vector.
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/* Vectors in C++ language */ // C++ program to illustrate the capacity function in vector #include <iostream> #include <vector> using namespace std; int main() { vector<int> myvector; for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) myvector.push_back(i); cout << "Size : " << myvector.size(); cout << "\nCapacity : " << myvector.capacity(); cout << "\nMax_Size : " << myvector.max_size(); // resizes the vector size to 4 myvector.resize(4); // prints the vector size after resize() cout << "\nSize : " << myvector.size(); // checks if the vector is empty or not if (myvector.empty() == false) cout << "\nVector is not empty"; else cout << "\nVector is empty"; // Shrinks the vector myvector.shrink_to_fit(); cout << "\nVector elements are: "; for (auto it = myvector.begin(); it != myvector.end(); it++) cout << *it << " "; return 0; }
Vector Library end() Function in C++
Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator referring to the past-the-end element in the vector container. The past-the-end element is the theoretical element that would follow the last element in the vector. It does not point to any element, and thus shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with vector::begin to specify a range including all the elements in the container. If the container is empty, this function returns the same as vector::begin.
Syntax for Vector end() Function in C++
#include <vector> iterator end() noexcept; const_iterator end() const noexcept;
This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the element past the end of the sequence. If the vector object is const-qualified, the function returns a const_iterator. Otherwise, it returns an iterator. Member types iterator and const_iterator are random access iterator types (pointing to an element and to a const element, respectively). To use vector, include <vector> header. It does not point to the last element, thus to get the last element we can use vector::end()-1.
Complexity
Constant
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
The container is accessed (neither the const nor the non-const versions modify the container). No contained elements are accessed by the call, but the iterator returned can be used to access or modify elements. Concurrently accessing or modifying different elements is safe.
Exception safety
No-throw guarantee: this member function never throws exceptions. The copy construction or assignment of the returned iterator is also guaranteed to never throw.
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/* returns the iterator pointing to the past-the-last element of the vector container by vector::end function code example. */ // CPP program to illustrate implementation of begin() function #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <vector> using namespace std; int main() { // declaration of vector container vector<string> myvector{ "This", "is", "HappyCodings" }; // using begin() to print vector for (auto it = myvector.begin(); it != myvector.end(); ++it) cout << ' ' << *it; return 0; }
sizeof() Operator in C++
The sizeof() is an operator that evaluates the size of data type, constants, variable. It is a compile-time operator as it returns the size of any variable or a constant at the compilation time. The size, which is calculated by the sizeof() operator, is the amount of RAM occupied in the computer. The sizeof is a keyword, but it is a compile-time operator that determines the size, in bytes, of a variable or data type. The sizeof operator can be used to get the size of classes, structures, unions and any other user defined data type.
Syntax for sizeof() Operator in C++
sizeof(data_type);
data_type
data type whose size is to be calculated The data_type can be the data type of the data, variables, constants, unions, structures, or any other user-defined data type. If the parameter of a sizeof() operator contains the data type of a variable, then the sizeof() operator will return the size of the data type. sizeof() may give different output according to machine, we have run our program on 32 bit gcc compiler.
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/* The sizeof() is an operator in C and C++. It is an unary operator which assists a programmer in finding the size of the operand which is being used. */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int arr[]={10,20,30,40,50}; std::cout << "Size of the array 'arr' is : "<<sizeof(arr) << std::endl; cout << "Size of char : " << sizeof(char) << endl; cout << "Size of int : " << sizeof(int) << endl; cout << "Size of short int : " << sizeof(short int) << endl; cout << "Size of long int : " << sizeof(long int) << endl; cout << "Size of float : " << sizeof(float) << endl; cout << "Size of double : " << sizeof(double) << endl; cout << "Size of wchar_t : " << sizeof(wchar_t) << endl; return 0; }
#include Directive in C++
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.
Syntax for #include Directive in C++
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories. Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor. • In #include directive, comments are not recognized. So in case of #include <a//b>, a//b is treated as filename. • In #include directive, backslash is considered as normal text not escape sequence. So in case of #include <a\nb>, a\nb is treated as filename. • You can use only comment after filename otherwise it will give error.
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/* using #include directive in C language */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { /* * C standard library printf function * defined in the stdio.h header file */ printf("I love you Clementine"); printf("I love you so much"); printf("HappyCodings"); return 0; }
Vector Library begin() Function in C++
Return iterator to beginning. Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the vector. Notice that, unlike member vector::front, which returns a reference to the first element, this function returns a random access iterator pointing to it. If the container is empty, the returned iterator value shall not be dereferenced. The C++ function std::vector::begin() returns a random access iterator pointing to the first element of the vector.
Syntax for Vector begin() Function in C++
#include <vector> iterator begin() noexcept; const_iterator begin() const noexcept;
This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the beginning of the sequence container. If the vector object is const-qualified, the function returns a const_iterator. Otherwise, it returns an iterator. Member types iterator and const_iterator are random access iterator types (pointing to an element and to a const element, respectively).
Complexity
Constant
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
The container is accessed (neither the const nor the non-const versions modify the container). No contained elements are accessed by the call, but the iterator returned can be used to access or modify elements. Concurrently accessing or modifying different elements is safe.
Exception safety
No-throw guarantee: this member function never throws exceptions. The copy construction or assignment of the returned iterator is also guaranteed to never throw.
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/* returns a random access iterator pointing to the first element of the vector by std::vector::begin() function code example. */ // CPP program to illustrate implementation of begin() function #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <vector> using namespace std; int main() { // declaration of vector container vector<string> myvector{ "This", "is", "HappyCodings" }; // using begin() to print vector for (auto it = myvector.begin(); it != myvector.end(); ++it) cout << ' ' << *it; return 0; }
IOS Library eof() Function in C++
Check whether eofbit is set. Returns true if the eofbit error state flag is set for the stream. This flag is set by all standard input operations when the End-of-File is reached in the sequence associated with the stream. Note that the value returned by this function depends on the last operation performed on the stream (and not on the next). Operations that attempt to read at the End-of-File fail, and thus both the eofbit and the failbit end up set. This function can be used to check whether the failure is due to reaching the End-of-File or to some other reason.
Syntax for IOS eof() Function in C++
bool eof() const;
This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns true if the stream's eofbit error state flag is set (which signals that the End-of-File has been reached by the last input operation). false otherwise.
Data races
Accesses the stream object. Concurrent access to the same stream object may cause data races.
Exception safety
Strong guarantee: if an exception is thrown, there are no changes in the stream.
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/* The eof() method of ios class in C++ is used to check if the stream is has raised any EOF (End Of File) error. It means that this function will check if this stream has its eofbit set. */ // C++ code example to demonstrate the working of eof() function #include <iostream> #include <fstream> int main () { std::ifstream is("example.txt"); char c; while (is.get(c)) std::cout << c; if (is.eof()) std::cout << "[EoF reached]\n"; else std::cout << "[error reading]\n"; is.close(); return 0; }