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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Code Snippets Code Examples

A filter to remove white-space characters at the ends of lines.

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/* A filter to remove white-space characters at the ends of lines. */ #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; void cutline( void ); string line; int main() { while( getline(cin, line)) { cutline(); cout << line << endl; } return 0; } void cutline() { int i = line.size(); while( i-- >= 0 ) if( line[i] != ' ' && line[i] != '\t' ) break; line.resize(++i); }
String Library size() Function in C++
Return length of string. Returns the length of the string, in terms of bytes. This is the number of actual bytes that conform the contents of the string, which is not necessarily equal to its storage capacity. Note that string objects handle bytes without knowledge of the encoding that may eventually be used to encode the characters it contains. Therefore, the value returned may not correspond to the actual number of encoded characters in sequences of multi-byte or variable-length characters (such as UTF-8). Both string::size and string::length are synonyms and return the same value.
Syntax for String size() Function in C++
#include <string> size_t size() const noexcept;
This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns the number of bytes in the string. size_t is an unsigned integral type (the same as member type string::size_type).
Complexity
Constant
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
The object is accessed.
Exception safety
No-throw guarantee: this member function never throws exceptions.
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/* return the length of the string in terms of bytes by string size() function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { string s1("Quick! from book www.com."); string s2("Lord test "); string s3("Don't test"); s1.erase(0, 7); s1.replace(9, 5, s2); s1.replace(0, 1, "s"); s1.insert(0, s3); s1.erase(s1.size()-1, 1); s1.append(3, '!'); int x = s1.find(' '); //find a space while( x < s1.size() ) //loop while spaces remain { s1.replace(x, 1, "/"); //replace with slash x = s1.find(' '); //find next space } cout << "s1: " << s1 << endl; return 0; }
Namespaces in C++ Language
Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code. A namespace is designed to overcome this difficulty and is used as additional information to differentiate similar functions, classes, variables etc. with the same name available in different libraries. Using namespace, you can define the context in which names are defined. In essence, a namespace defines a scope.
Defining a Namespace
A namespace definition begins with the keyword namespace followed by the namespace name as follows:
namespace namespace_name { // code declarations }
To call the namespace-enabled version of either function or variable, prepend (::) the namespace name as follows:
name::code; // code could be variable or function.
Using Directive
You can also avoid prepending of namespaces with the using namespace directive. This directive tells the compiler that the subsequent code is making use of names in the specified namespace.
Discontiguous Namespaces
A namespace can be defined in several parts and so a namespace is made up of the sum of its separately defined parts. The separate parts of a namespace can be spread over multiple files. So, if one part of the namespace requires a name defined in another file, that name must still be declared. Writing a following namespace definition either defines a new namespace or adds new elements to an existing one:
namespace namespace_name { // code declarations }
Nested Namespaces
Namespaces can be nested where you can define one namespace inside another name space as follows:
namespace namespace_name1 { // code declarations namespace namespace_name2 { // code declarations } }
• Namespace is a feature added in C++ and not present in C. • A namespace is a declarative region that provides a scope to the identifiers (names of the types, function, variables etc) inside it. • Multiple namespace blocks with the same name are allowed. All declarations within those blocks are declared in the named scope. • Namespace declarations appear only at global scope. • Namespace declarations can be nested within another namespace. • Namespace declarations don't have access specifiers. (Public or private) • No need to give semicolon after the closing brace of definition of namespace. • We can split the definition of namespace over several units.
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/* namespaces in C++ language */ // A C++ code to demonstrate that we can define // methods outside namespace. #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Creating a namespace namespace ns { void display(); class happy { public: void display(); }; } // Defining methods of namespace void ns::happy::display() { cout << "ns::happy::display()\n"; } void ns::display() { cout << "ns::display()\n"; } // Driver code int main() { ns::happy obj; ns::display(); obj.display(); return 0; }
String Library resize() Function in C++
Resize string. Resizes the string to a length of n characters. The C++ string::resize function is used to resize the string to a length of specified number of characters (n). If n is smaller than the current string length, the current value is shortened to its first n character, removing the characters beyond the nth. If n is greater than the current string length, the current content is extended by inserting at the end as many characters as needed to reach a size of n. If c is specified, the new elements are initialized as copies of c, otherwise, they are value-initialized characters (null characters).
Syntax for String resize() Function in C++
#include <string> void resize (size_t n); void resize (size_t n, char c);
n
New string length, expressed in number of characters. size_t is an unsigned integral type (the same as member type string::size_type).
c
Character used to fill the new character space added to the string (in case the string is expanded). It does not return any value.
Complexity
Unspecified, but generally up to linear in the new string length.
Iterator validity
Any iterators, pointers and references related to this object may be invalidated.
Data races
The object is modified.
Exception safety
Strong guarantee: if an exception is thrown, there are no changes in the string. If n is greater than max_size, a length_error exception is thrown. A bad_alloc exception is thrown if the function needs to allocate storage and fails.
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/* The C++ string::resize function is used to resize the string to a length of specified number of characters (n). If n is less than the current string length then the content is reduced to the first n characters of the string. If n is greater than the current string length, then the new characters are inserted at the end of the string. If c is specified, then new characters are initialized with c, else they are value-initialized. */ /* resize the string to the length of k characters by string::resize function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main (){ string MyString = "Learn Python"; //size of the string is reduced to 6 MyString.resize(6); //size of the string is expanded to 7 with character 'C' MyString.resize(7, 'C'); //size of the string is expanded to 9 with character '+' MyString.resize(9, '+'); cout<<"MyString contains: "<<MyString; return 0; }
main() Function in C++
A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.
Syntax for main() Function in C++
void main() { ............ ............ }
void
void is a keyword in C++ language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value.
main
main is a name of function which is predefined function in C++ library. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value. 1) It cannot be used anywhere in the program a) in particular, it cannot be called recursively b) its address cannot be taken 2) It cannot be predefined and cannot be overloaded: effectively, the name main in the global namespace is reserved for functions (although it can be used to name classes, namespaces, enumerations, and any entity in a non-global namespace, except that a function called "main" cannot be declared with C language linkage in any namespace). 3) It cannot be defined as deleted or (since C++11) declared with C language linkage, constexpr (since C++11), consteval (since C++20), inline, or static. 4) The body of the main function does not need to contain the return statement: if control reaches the end of main without encountering a return statement, the effect is that of executing return 0;. 5) Execution of the return (or the implicit return upon reaching the end of main) is equivalent to first leaving the function normally (which destroys the objects with automatic storage duration) and then calling std::exit with the same argument as the argument of the return. (std::exit then destroys static objects and terminates the program). 6) (since C++14) The return type of the main function cannot be deduced (auto main() {... is not allowed). 7) (since C++20) The main function cannot be a coroutine.
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/* simple code example by main() function in C++ */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int day = 4; switch (day) { case 1: cout << "Monday"; break; case 2: cout << "Tuesday"; break; case 3: cout << "Wednesday"; break; case 4: cout << "Thursday"; break; case 5: cout << "Friday"; break; case 6: cout << "Saturday"; break; case 7: cout << "Sunday"; break; } return 0; }
#include Directive in C++
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.
Syntax for #include Directive in C++
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories. Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor. • In #include directive, comments are not recognized. So in case of #include <a//b>, a//b is treated as filename. • In #include directive, backslash is considered as normal text not escape sequence. So in case of #include <a\nb>, a\nb is treated as filename. • You can use only comment after filename otherwise it will give error.
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/* using #include directive in C language */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { /* * C standard library printf function * defined in the stdio.h header file */ printf("I love you Clementine"); printf("I love you so much"); printf("HappyCodings"); return 0; }
Break Statement in C++
Break statement in C++ is a loop control statement defined using the break keyword. It is used to stop the current execution and proceed with the next one. When a compiler calls the break statement, it immediately stops the execution of the loop and transfers the control outside the loop and executes the other statements. In the case of a nested loop, break the statement stops the execution of the inner loop and proceeds with the outer loop. The statement itself says it breaks the loop. When the break statement is called in the program, it immediately terminates the loop and transfers the flow control to the statement mentioned outside the loop.
Syntax for Break Statement in C++
// jump-statement; break;
The break statement is used in the following scenario: • When a user is not sure about the number of iterations in the program. • When a user wants to stop the program based on some condition. The break statement terminates the loop where it is defined and execute the other. If the condition is mentioned in the program, based on the condition, it executes the loop. If the condition is true, it executes the conditional statement, and if the break statement is mentioned, it will immediately break the program. otherwise, the loop will iterate until the given condition fails. if the condition is false, it stops the program.
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/* break statement with while loop code example */ // program to find the sum of positive numbers // if the user enters a negative numbers, break ends the loop // the negative number entered is not added to sum #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int number; int sum = 0; while (true) { // take input from the user cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; // break condition if (number < 0) { break; } // add all positive numbers sum += number; } // display the sum cout << "The sum is " << sum << endl; return 0; }
Logical Operators in C++
Logical Operators are used to compare and connect two or more expressions or variables, such that the value of the expression is completely dependent on the original expression or value or variable. We use logical operators to check whether an expression is true or false. If the expression is true, it returns 1 whereas if the expression is false, it returns 0. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0:
&&
Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A && B) is false. The logical AND operator && returns true - if and only if all the operands are true. false - if one or more operands are false.
||
Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A || B) is true. The logical OR operator || returns true - if one or more of the operands are true. false - if and only if all the operands are false.
!
Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. !(A && B) is true. The logical NOT operator ! is a unary operator i.e. it takes only one operand. It returns true when the operand is false, and false when the operand is true.
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/* The operator ! is the C++ operator for the Boolean operation NOT. It has only one operand, to its right, and inverts it, producing false if its operand is true, and true if its operand is false. Basically, it returns the opposite Boolean value of evaluating its operand. The logical operators && and || are used when evaluating two expressions to obtain a single relational result. The operator && corresponds to the Boolean logical operation AND, which yields true if both its operands are true, and false otherwise. */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; main() { int a = 5; int b = 20; int c ; if(a && b) { cout << "Line 1 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } if(a || b) { cout << "Line 2 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } /* Let's change the values of a and b */ a = 0; b = 10; if(a && b) { cout << "Line 3 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } else { cout << "Line 4 - Condition is not true"<< endl ; } if(!(a && b)) { cout << "Line 5 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } return 0; }
If Else Statement in C++
In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement,
Syntax for If Statement in C++
if (condition) { // body of if statement }
The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.
Syntax for If...Else Statement
if (condition) { // block of code if condition is true } else { // block of code if condition is false }
The if..else statement evaluates the condition inside the parenthesis. If the condition evaluates true, the code inside the body of if is executed, the code inside the body of else is skipped from execution. If the condition evaluates false, the code inside the body of else is executed, the code inside the body of if is skipped from execution. The if...else statement is used to execute a block of code among two alternatives. However, if we need to make a choice between more than two alternatives, we use the if...else if...else statement.
Syntax for If...Else...Else If Statement in C++
if (condition1) { // code block 1 } else if (condition2){ // code block 2 } else { // code block 3 }
• If condition1 evaluates to true, the code block 1 is executed. • If condition1 evaluates to false, then condition2 is evaluated. • If condition2 is true, the code block 2 is executed. • If condition2 is false, the code block 3 is executed. There can be more than one else if statement but only one if and else statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
Syntax for If Else If Ladder in C++
if (condition) statement 1; else if (condition) statement 2; . . else statement;
Working of the if-else-if ladder: 1. Control falls into the if block. 2. The flow jumps to Condition 1. 3. Condition is tested. If Condition yields true, goto Step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 5. 4. The present block is executed. Goto Step 7. 5. The flow jumps to Condition 2. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 6. 6. The flow jumps to Condition 3. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, execute else block. Goto Step 7. 7. Exits the if-else-if ladder. • The if else ladder statement in C++ programming language is used to check set of conditions in sequence. • This is useful when we want to selectively executes one code block(out of many) based on certain conditions. • It allows us to check for multiple condition expressions and execute different code blocks for more than two conditions. • A condition expression is tested only when all previous if conditions in if-else ladder is false. • If any of the conditional expression evaluates to true, then it will execute the corresponding code block and exits whole if-else ladder.
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/* If Else Statement in C++ Language */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // local variable declaration: int a = 100; // check the boolean condition if( a < 20 ) { // if condition is true then print the following cout << "a is less than 20;" << endl; } else { // if condition is false then print the following cout << "a is not less than 20;" << endl; } cout << "value of a is : " << a << endl; return 0; }
While Loop Statement in C++
In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.
Syntax for While Loop Statement in C++
while (condition) { // body of the loop }
• A while loop evaluates the condition • If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the while loop is executed. • The condition is evaluated again. • This process continues until the condition is false. • When the condition evaluates to false, the loop terminates. Do not forget to increase the variable used in the condition, otherwise the loop will never end!
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/* While Loop Statement in C++ language */ // program to find the sum of positive numbers // if the user enters a negative number, the loop ends // the negative number entered is not added to the sum #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int number; int sum = 0; // take input from the user cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; while (number >= 0) { // add all positive numbers sum += number; // take input again if the number is positive cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; } // display the sum cout << "\nThe sum is " << sum << endl; return 0; }
getline() Function in C++
Get line from stream into string. The cin is an object which is used to take input from the user but does not allow to take the input in multiple lines. To accept the multiple lines, we use the getline() function. It is a pre-defined function defined in a <string.h> header file used to accept a line or a string from the input stream until the delimiting character is encountered.
Syntax for getline() Function in C++
// (1) istream& getline (istream& is, string& str, char delim); istream& getline (istream&& is, string& str, char delim); // (2) istream& getline (istream& is, string& str); istream& getline (istream&& is, string& str);
is
istream object from which characters are extracted.
str
string object where the extracted line is stored. The contents in the string before the call (if any) are discarded and replaced by the extracted line.
delim
It is the delimiting character. Extracts characters from is and stores them into str until the delimitation character delim is found (or the newline character, '\n', for (2)). The extraction also stops if the end of file is reached in is or if some other error occurs during the input operation. If the delimiter is found, it is extracted and discarded (i.e. it is not stored and the next input operation will begin after it). Note that any content in str before the call is replaced by the newly extracted sequence. Each extracted character is appended to the string as if its member push_back was called. Function returns the same as parameter is. A call to this function may set any of the internal state flags of is if: eofbit: The end of the source of characters is reached during its operations. failbit: The input obtained could not be interpreted as a valid textual representation of an object of this type. In this case, distr preserves the parameters and internal data it had before the call. Notice that some eofbit cases will also set failbit. badbit: An error other than the above happened. (see ios_base::iostate for more info on these) Additionally, in any of these cases, if the appropriate flag has been set with is's member function ios::exceptions, an exception of type ios_base::failure is thrown.
Complexity
Unspecified, but generally linear in the resulting length of str.
Iterator validity
Any iterators, pointers and references related to str may be invalidated.
Data races
Both objects, is and str, are modified.
Exception safety
Basic guarantee: if an exception is thrown, both is and str end up in a valid state.
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/* get line from stream into string by getline() function code example */ // C++ program to demonstrate anomaly of delimitation of getline() function #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { string name; int id; // Taking id as input cout << "Please enter your id: \n"; cin >> id; // Takes the empty character as input cout << "Please enter your name: \n"; getline(cin, name); // Prints id cout << "Your id : " << id << "\n"; // Prints nothing in name field // as "\n" is considered a valid string cout << "Hello, " << name << " welcome to world !\n"; // Again Taking string as input getline(cin, name); // This actually prints the name cout << "Hello, " << name << " welcome to world !\n"; return 0; }


"Partitioning the array" on the basis of values at high as pivot value. Swapping value at high and at the index obtained. Partitioning array using last element as a pivot. And recursively