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C++ Programming Code Examples

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Demonstrate unique() in list

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/* Demonstrate unique() in list */ #include <iostream> #include <list> using namespace std; int main() { list<int> listObject; list<int>::iterator p; for(int i = 0; i < 5; i++) for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) listObject.push_back(i); cout << "Orignal list: "; for(p = listObject.begin(); p != listObject.end(); p++) cout << *p << " "; cout << endl; listObject.unique(); // remove consecutive duplicates cout << "Modified list: "; for(p = listObject.begin(); p != listObject.end(); p++) cout << *p << " "; cout << endl; return 0; }
Iterators in C++ Language
Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result.
Syntax for Iterators in C++
<ContainerType> :: iterator; <ContainerType> :: const_iterator;
• Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used. • Iterators provide a generic approach to navigate through the elements of a container. Operator (*) : The '*' operator returns the element of the current position pointed by the iterator. Operator (++) : The '++' operator increments the iterator by one. Therefore, an iterator points to the next element of the container. Operator (==) and Operator (!=) : Both these operators determine whether the two iterators point to the same position or not. Operator (=) : The '=' operator assigns the iterator. Iterators can be smart pointers which allow to iterate over the complex data structures. A Container provides its iterator type. Therefore, we can say that the iterators have the common interface with different container type. The container classes provide two basic member functions that allow to iterate or move through the elements of a container: begin(): The begin() function returns an iterator pointing to the first element of the container. end(): The end() function returns an iterator pointing to the past-the-last element of the container. Input Iterator: An input iterator is an iterator used to access the elements from the container, but it does not modify the value of a container. Operators used for an input iterator are: Increment operator(++), Equal operator(==), Not equal operator(!=), Dereference operator(*). Output Iterator: An output iterator is an iterator used to modify the value of a container, but it does not read the value from a container. Therefore, we can say that an output iterator is a write-only iterator. Operators used for an output iterator are: Increment operator(++), Assignment operator(=). Forward Iterator: A forward iterator is an iterator used to read and write to a container. It is a multi-pass iterator. Operators used for a Forward iterator are: Increment operator(++), Assignment operator(=), Equal operator(=), Not equal operator(!=). Bidirectional iterator: A bidirectional iterator is an iterator supports all the features of a forward iterator plus it adds one more feature, i.e., decrement operator(--). We can move backward by decrementing an iterator. Operators used for a Bidirectional iterator are: Increment operator(++), Assignment operator(=), Equal operator(=), Not equal operator(!=), Decrement operator(--). Random Access Iterator: A Random Access iterator is an iterator provides random access of an element at an arbitrary location. It has all the features of a bidirectional iterator plus it adds one more feature, i.e., pointer addition and pointer subtraction to provide random access to an element. Following are the disadvantages of an iterator: • If we want to move from one data structure to another at the same time, iterators won't work. • If we want to update the structure which is being iterated, an iterator won?t allow us to do because of the way it stores the position. • If we want to backtrack while processing through a list, the iterator will not work in this case. Following are the advantages of an iterator: • Ease in programming: It is convenient to use iterators rather than using a subscript operator[] to access the elements of a container. If we use subscript operator[] to access the elements, then we need to keep the track of the number of elements added at the runtime, but this would not happen in the case of an iterator. • Code Reusability: A code can be reused if we use iterators. In the above example, if we replace vector with the list, and then the subscript operator[] would not work to access the elements as the list does not support the random access. However, we use iterators to access the elements, then we can also access the list elements. • Dynamic Processing: C++ iterators provide the facility to add or delete the data dynamically.
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/* Iterators in C++ language */ // C++ code to demonstrate the working of next() and prev() #include<iostream> #include<iterator> // for iterators #include<vector> // for vectors using namespace std; int main() { vector<int> ar = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }; // Declaring iterators to a vector vector<int>::iterator ptr = ar.begin(); vector<int>::iterator ftr = ar.end(); // Using next() to return new iterator // points to 4 auto it = next(ptr, 3); // Using prev() to return new iterator // points to 3 auto it1 = prev(ftr, 3); // Displaying iterator position cout << "The position of new iterator using next() is : "; cout << *it << " "; cout << endl; // Displaying iterator position cout << "The position of new iterator using prev() is : "; cout << *it1 << " "; cout << endl; return 0; }
#include Directive in C++
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.
Syntax for #include Directive in C++
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories. Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor. • In #include directive, comments are not recognized. So in case of #include <a//b>, a//b is treated as filename. • In #include directive, backslash is considered as normal text not escape sequence. So in case of #include <a\nb>, a\nb is treated as filename. • You can use only comment after filename otherwise it will give error.
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/* using #include directive in C language */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { /* * C standard library printf function * defined in the stdio.h header file */ printf("I love you Clementine"); printf("I love you so much"); printf("HappyCodings"); return 0; }
Namespaces in C++ Language
Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code. A namespace is designed to overcome this difficulty and is used as additional information to differentiate similar functions, classes, variables etc. with the same name available in different libraries. Using namespace, you can define the context in which names are defined. In essence, a namespace defines a scope.
Defining a Namespace
A namespace definition begins with the keyword namespace followed by the namespace name as follows:
namespace namespace_name { // code declarations }
To call the namespace-enabled version of either function or variable, prepend (::) the namespace name as follows:
name::code; // code could be variable or function.
Using Directive
You can also avoid prepending of namespaces with the using namespace directive. This directive tells the compiler that the subsequent code is making use of names in the specified namespace.
Discontiguous Namespaces
A namespace can be defined in several parts and so a namespace is made up of the sum of its separately defined parts. The separate parts of a namespace can be spread over multiple files. So, if one part of the namespace requires a name defined in another file, that name must still be declared. Writing a following namespace definition either defines a new namespace or adds new elements to an existing one:
namespace namespace_name { // code declarations }
Nested Namespaces
Namespaces can be nested where you can define one namespace inside another name space as follows:
namespace namespace_name1 { // code declarations namespace namespace_name2 { // code declarations } }
• Namespace is a feature added in C++ and not present in C. • A namespace is a declarative region that provides a scope to the identifiers (names of the types, function, variables etc) inside it. • Multiple namespace blocks with the same name are allowed. All declarations within those blocks are declared in the named scope. • Namespace declarations appear only at global scope. • Namespace declarations can be nested within another namespace. • Namespace declarations don't have access specifiers. (Public or private) • No need to give semicolon after the closing brace of definition of namespace. • We can split the definition of namespace over several units.
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/* namespaces in C++ language */ // A C++ code to demonstrate that we can define // methods outside namespace. #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Creating a namespace namespace ns { void display(); class happy { public: void display(); }; } // Defining methods of namespace void ns::happy::display() { cout << "ns::happy::display()\n"; } void ns::display() { cout << "ns::display()\n"; } // Driver code int main() { ns::happy obj; ns::display(); obj.display(); return 0; }
main() Function in C++
A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.
Syntax for main() Function in C++
void main() { ............ ............ }
void
void is a keyword in C++ language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value.
main
main is a name of function which is predefined function in C++ library. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value. 1) It cannot be used anywhere in the program a) in particular, it cannot be called recursively b) its address cannot be taken 2) It cannot be predefined and cannot be overloaded: effectively, the name main in the global namespace is reserved for functions (although it can be used to name classes, namespaces, enumerations, and any entity in a non-global namespace, except that a function called "main" cannot be declared with C language linkage in any namespace). 3) It cannot be defined as deleted or (since C++11) declared with C language linkage, constexpr (since C++11), consteval (since C++20), inline, or static. 4) The body of the main function does not need to contain the return statement: if control reaches the end of main without encountering a return statement, the effect is that of executing return 0;. 5) Execution of the return (or the implicit return upon reaching the end of main) is equivalent to first leaving the function normally (which destroys the objects with automatic storage duration) and then calling std::exit with the same argument as the argument of the return. (std::exit then destroys static objects and terminates the program). 6) (since C++14) The return type of the main function cannot be deduced (auto main() {... is not allowed). 7) (since C++20) The main function cannot be a coroutine.
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/* simple code example by main() function in C++ */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int day = 4; switch (day) { case 1: cout << "Monday"; break; case 2: cout << "Tuesday"; break; case 3: cout << "Wednesday"; break; case 4: cout << "Thursday"; break; case 5: cout << "Friday"; break; case 6: cout << "Saturday"; break; case 7: cout << "Sunday"; break; } return 0; }
List Library push_back() Function in C++
Add element at the end. Adds a new element at the end of the list container, after its current last element. The content of val is copied (or moved) to the new element. This effectively increases the container size by one. The list:push_back() function in C++ STL is used to add a new element to an existing list container. It takes the element to be added as a parameter and adds it to the list container.
Syntax for List push_back() Function in C++
#include <list> void push_back (const value_type& val); void push_back (value_type&& val);
val
Value to be copied (or moved) to the new element. Member type value_type is the type of the elements in the container, defined in list as an alias of its first template parameter (T). This function accepts a single parameter which is mandatory value. This refers to the element needed to be added to the list, list_name. This function does not return any value. The storage for the new elements is allocated using the container's allocator, which may throw exceptions on failure (for the default allocator, bad_alloc is thrown if the allocation request does not succeed).
Complexity
Constant
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
The container is modified. No existing contained elements are accessed: concurrently accessing or modifying them is safe.
Exception safety
Strong guarantee: if an exception is thrown, there are no changes in the container. If allocator_traits::construct is not supported with val as argument, it causes undefined behavior.
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/* list::push_back() function is used to push elements into a list from the back. The new value is inserted into the list at the end, after the current last element and the container size is increased by 1.*/ // CPP program code example to illustrate application Of push_back() function #include <iostream> #include <list> using namespace std; int main() { list<int> mylist{}; mylist.push_back(7); mylist.push_back(89); mylist.push_back(45); mylist.push_back(6); mylist.push_back(24); mylist.push_back(58); mylist.push_back(43); // list becomes 7, 89, 45, 6, 24, 58, 43 // Sorting function mylist.sort(); for (auto it = mylist.begin(); it != mylist.end(); ++it) cout << ' ' << *it; }
List in C++ Language
List is a popularly used sequence container. Container is an object that holds data of same type. List container is implemented as doubly linked-list, hence it provides bidirectional sequential access to it's data. List doesn't provide fast random access, it only supports sequential access in both directions. List allows insertion and deletion operation anywhere within a sequence in constant time. Elements of list can be scattered in different chunks of memory. Container stores necessary information to allow sequential access to it's data. Lists can shrink or expand as needed from both ends at run time. The storage requirement is fulfilled automatically by internal allocator. Zero sized lists are also valid. In that case list.begin() and list.end() points to same location. But behavior of calling front() or back() is undefined. To define the std::list, we have to import the <list> header file.
Definition Syntax for Lists in C++
template < class Type, class Alloc =allocator<T> > class list;
T
Defines the type of element contained. You can substitute T by any data type, even user-defined types.
Alloc
Defines the type of the allocator object. This uses the allocator class template by default. It's value-dependent and uses a simple memory allocation model. • List is a contiguous container while vector is a non-contiguous container i.e list stores the elements on a contiguous memory and vector stores on a non-contiguous memory. • Insertion and deletion in the middle of the vector is very costly as it takes lot of time in shifting all the elements. Linklist overcome this problem and it is implemented using list container. • List supports a bidirectional and provides an efficient way for insertion and deletion operations. • Traversal is slow in list as list elements are accessed sequentially while vector supports a random access. Following member types can be used as parameters or return type by member functions: • value_type T (First parameter of the template) • allocator_type Alloc (Second parameter of the template) • reference value_type& • const_reference const value_type& • pointer value_type* • const_pointer const value_type* • iterator a random access iterator to value_type • const_iterator a random access iterator to const value_type • reverse_iterator std::reverse_iterator <iterator> • const_reverse_iterator std::reverse_iterator <const_iterator> • size_type size_t • difference_type ptrdiff_t C++ List Member Functions • insert(): It inserts the new element before the position pointed by the iterator. • push_back(): It adds a new element at the end of the vector. • push_front(): It adds a new element to the front. • pop_back(): It deletes the last element. • pop_front(): It deletes the first element. • empty(): It checks whether the list is empty or not. • size(): It finds the number of elements present in the list. • max_size(): It finds the maximum size of the list. • front(): It returns the first element of the list. • back(): It returns the last element of the list. • swap(): It swaps two list when the type of both the list are same. • reverse(): It reverses the elements of the list. • sort(): It sorts the elements of the list in an increasing order. • merge(): It merges the two sorted list. • splice(): It inserts a new list into the invoking list. • unique(): It removes all the duplicate elements from the list. • resize(): It changes the size of the list container. • assign(): It assigns a new element to the list container. • emplace(): It inserts a new element at a specified position. • emplace_back(): It inserts a new element at the end of the vector. • emplace_front(): It inserts a new element at the beginning of the list. Non-member overloaded functions operator== Tests whether two lists are equal or not. 2 operator!= Tests whether two lists are equal or not. 3 operator< Tests whether first list is less than other or not. 4 operator<= Tests whether first list is less than or equal to other or not. 5 operator> Tests whether first list is greater than other or not. 6 operator>= Tests whether first list is greater than or equal to other or not. 7 swap Exchanges the contents of two list.
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/* using lists in C++ language simple code example */ #include <iostream> #include <list> using namespace std; int main(void) { list<int> l; list<int> l1 = { 10, 20, 30 }; list<int> l2(l1.begin(), l1.end()); list<int> l3(move(l1)); cout << "Size of list l: " << l.size() << endl; cout << "List l2 contents: " << endl; for (auto it = l2.begin(); it != l2.end(); ++it) cout << *it << endl; cout << "List l3 contents: " << endl; for (auto it = l3.begin(); it != l3.end(); ++it) cout << *it << endl; return 0; }
List Library end() Function in C++
Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator referring to the past-the-end element in the list container. The past-the-end element is the theoretical element that would follow the last element in the list container. It does not point to any element, and thus shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with list::begin to specify a range including all the elements in the container. If the container is empty, this function returns the same as list::begin.
Syntax for List end() Function in C++
#include <list> iterator end() noexcept; const_iterator end() const noexcept;
This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the element past the end of the sequence. If the list object is const-qualified, the function returns a const_iterator. Otherwise, it returns an iterator. Member types iterator and const_iterator are bidirectional iterator types (pointing to an element and to a const element, respectively). The list::end() is a built-in function in C++ STL which is used to get an iterator to past the last element. By past the last element it is meant that the iterator returned by the end() function return an iterator to an element which follows the last element in the list container. It can not be used to modify the element or the list container.
Complexity
Constant
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
The container is accessed (neither the const nor the non-const versions modify the container). No contained elements are accessed by the call, but the iterator returned can be used to access or modify elements. Concurrently accessing or modifying different elements is safe.
Exception safety
No-throw guarantee: this member function never throws exceptions. The copy construction or assignment of the returned iterator is also guaranteed to never throw.
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/* returns a random access iterator which points to the last element of the list by std::list::end() function code example */ // CPP program to illustrate the list::end() function #include <bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; int main() { // Creating a list list<int> demoList; // Add elements to the List demoList.push_back(10); demoList.push_back(20); demoList.push_back(30); demoList.push_back(40); // using end() to get iterator // to past the last element list<int>::iterator it = demoList.end(); // This will not print the last element cout << "Returned iterator points to : " << *it << endl; // Using end() with begin() as a range to // print all of the list elements for (auto itr = demoList.begin(); itr != demoList.end(); itr++) { cout << *itr << " "; } return 0; }
For Loop Statement in C++
In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.
Syntax of For Loop Statement in C++
for (initialization; condition; update) { // body of-loop }
initialization
initializes variables and is executed only once.
condition
if true, the body of for loop is executed, if false, the for loop is terminated.
update
updates the value of initialized variables and again checks the condition. A new range-based for loop was introduced to work with collections such as arrays and vectors.
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/* For Loop Statement in C++ Language */ // C++ program to find the sum of first n natural numbers // positive integers such as 1,2,3,...n are known as natural numbers #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int num, sum; sum = 0; cout << "Enter a positive integer: "; cin >> num; for (int i = 1; i <= num; ++i) { sum += i; } cout << "Sum = " << sum << endl; return 0; }
Nested Loop Statement in C++
C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop. A loop inside another loop is called a nested loop. The depth of nested loop depends on the complexity of a problem. We can have any number of nested loops as required. Consider a nested loop where the outer loop runs n times and consists of another loop inside it. The inner loop runs m times. Then, the total number of times the inner loop runs during the program execution is n*m.
Syntax for Nested Loop Statement in C++
Outer_loop { Inner_loop { // inner loop statements. } // outer loop statements. }
Outer_loop and Inner_loop are the valid loops that can be a 'for' loop, 'while' loop or 'do-while' loop.
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/* nested loop statement in C++ language */ // C++ program that uses nested for loop to print a 2D matrix #include <bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; #define ROW 3 #define COL 3 // Driver program int main() { int i, j; // Declare the matrix int matrix[ROW][COL] = { { 4, 8, 12 }, { 16, 20, 24 }, { 28, 32, 36 } }; cout << "Given matrix is \n"; // Print the matrix using nested loops for (i = 0; i < ROW; i++) { for (j = 0; j < COL; j++) cout << matrix[i][j]; cout << "\n"; } return 0; }
List Library unique() Function in C++
Remove duplicate values. The version with no parameters (1), removes all but the first element from every consecutive group of equal elements in the container. list::unique() is an inbuilt function in C++ STL which removes all duplicate consecutive elements from the list. It works only on sorted list. Notice that an element is only removed from the list container if it compares equal to the element immediately preceding it. Thus, this function is especially useful for sorted lists. The second version (2), takes as argument a specific comparison function that determine the "uniqueness" of an element. In fact, any behavior can be implemented (and not only an equality comparison), but notice that the function will call binary_pred(*i,*(i-1)) for all pairs of elements (where i is an iterator to an element, starting from the second) and remove i from the list if the predicate returns true. The elements removed are destroyed.
Syntax for List unique() Function in C++
#include <list> //(1) void unique(); //(2) template <class BinaryPredicate> void unique (BinaryPredicate binary_pred);
binary_pred
Binary predicate that, taking two values of the same type than those contained in the list, returns true to remove the element passed as first argument from the container, and false otherwise. This shall be a function pointer or a function object. This function does not return any value.
Complexity
Linear in container size minus one.
Iterator validity
Iterators, pointers and references referring to elements removed by the function are invalidated. All other iterators, pointers and references keep their validity.
Data races
The container is modified. The elements removed are modified. Concurrently accessing or modifying other elements is safe, although iterating through the container is not.
Exception safety
If binary_pred or the comparison of elements is guaranteed to not throw, the function never throws exceptions (no-throw guarantee). Otherwise, if an exception is thrown, the container is left in a valid state (basic guarantee).
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/* The C++ function std::list::unique() Removes all consecutive duplicate elements from the list. It uses binary predicate for comparison. */ /* remove all the duplicate elements present consecutively from the list by List unique() function code example. */ #include <bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; // Function for binary_predicate bool compare(double a, double b) { return ((int)a == (int)b); } // Driver code int main() { list<double> list = { 2.55, 3.15, 4.16, 4.16, 4.77, 12.65, 12.65, 13.59 }; cout << "List is: "; //sort the list list.sort(); // unique operation on list with no parameters list.unique(); // starts from the first element // of the list to the last for (auto it = list.begin(); it != list.end(); ++it) cout << *it << " "; // unique operation on list with parameter list.unique(compare); cout << "\nList is: "; // starts from the first element // of the list to the last for (auto it = list.begin(); it != list.end(); ++it) cout << *it << " "; return 0; }
List Library begin() Function in C++
Return iterator to beginning. Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the list container. Notice that, unlike member list::front, which returns a reference to the first element, this function returns a bidirectional iterator pointing to it. If the container is empty, the returned iterator value shall not be dereferenced. begin() function is used to return an iterator pointing to the first element of the list container. It is different from the front() function because the front function returns a reference to the first element of the container but begin() function returns a bidirectional iterator to the first element of the container.
Syntax for List begin() Function in C++
#include <list> iterator begin() noexcept; const_iterator begin() const noexcept;
This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the beginning of the sequence container. If the list object is const-qualified, the function returns a const_iterator. Otherwise, it returns an iterator. Member types iterator and const_iterator are bidirectional iterator types (pointing to an element and to a const element, respectively). If list object is constant qualified then method returns constant random access iterator otherwise non constant random access iterator.
Complexity
Constant
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
The container is accessed (neither the const nor the non-const versions modify the container). No contained elements are accessed by the call, but the iterator returned can be used to access or modify elements. Concurrently accessing or modifying different elements is safe.
Exception safety
No-throw guarantee: this member function never throws exceptions. The copy construction or assignment of the returned iterator is also guaranteed to never throw.
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/* returns a random access iterator which points to the first element of the list by std::list::begin() function code example */ // CPP program to illustrate implementation of end() function #include <iostream> #include <list> using namespace std; int main() { // declaration of list container list<int> mylist{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }; // using end() to print list for (auto it = mylist.begin(); it != mylist.end(); ++it) cout << ' ' << *it; return 0; }