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C++ Programming Code Examples

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Function with stack as parameter

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/* Function with stack as parameter */ #include <iostream> using std::cout; using std::endl; #include <stack> // stack adapter definition #include <vector> // vector class-template definition #include <list> // list class-template definition template< typename T > void pushElements( T &stackRef ); template< typename T > void popElements( T &stackRef ); int main() { std::stack< int > intDequeStack; cout << "Pushing onto intDequeStack: "; pushElements( intDequeStack ); cout << endl << endl; cout << "Popping from intDequeStack: "; popElements( intDequeStack ); cout << endl; return 0; } template< typename T > void pushElements( T &stackRef ) { for ( int i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { stackRef.push( i ); cout << stackRef.top() << ' '; } } template< typename T > void popElements( T &stackRef ) { while ( !stackRef.empty() ) { cout << stackRef.top() << ' '; stackRef.pop(); } } /* Pushing onto intDequeStack: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Popping from intDequeStack: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 */
Stack Library pop() Function in C++
Remove top element. Removes the element on top of the stack, effectively reducing its size by one. The C++ function std::stack::pop() removes top element from the stack and reduces size of stack by one. This function calls destructor on removed element. The element removed is the latest element inserted into the stack, whose value can be retrieved by calling member stack::top. This calls the removed element's destructor. This member function effectively calls the member function pop_back of the underlying container object.
Syntax for Stack pop() Function in C++
#include <stack> void pop();
The function takes no parameter and is used only for the deletion of the top element. Also since the stack follows LIFO principle we do not need to specify which element is to be deleted as it is by default understood that the top most element will be removed first. The function is used only for the removal of elements from the stack and has no return value. Hence we can say that the return type of the function is void.
Complexity
Constant (calling pop_back on the underlying container).
Data races
The container and up to all its contained elements are modified.
Exception safety
Provides the same level of guarantees as the operation performed on the underlying container object.
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/* pop() function is used to remove or 'pop' an element from the top of the stack(newest or the topmost element in the stack). This is an inbuilt function from C++ Standard Template Library(STL). This function belongs to the <stack> header file. The element is removed from the stack container and the size of the stack is decreased by 1. */ /* removing the topmost element of the stack by Stack pop() function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> using namespace std; int main (){ stack<int> MyStack; MyStack.push(10); MyStack.push(20); MyStack.push(30); MyStack.push(40); MyStack.push(50); cout<<"The top element of the stack is: "<<MyStack.top(); //deletes top element of the stack MyStack.pop(); cout<<"\nNow, the top element of the stack is: "<<MyStack.top(); //deletes next top element of the stack MyStack.pop(); cout<<"\nNow, the top element of the stack is: "<<MyStack.top(); return 0; }
Stack push() Function in C++
Insert element. Inserts a new element at the top of the stack, above its current top element. The content of this new element is initialized to a copy of val. This member function effectively calls the member function push_back of the underlying container object. C++ Stack push () function is used for adding new elements at the top of the stack. If we have an array of type stack and by using the push() function we can insert new elements in the stack. The elements are inserted at the top of the stack. The element which is inserted most initially is deleted at the end and vice versa as stacks follow LIFO principle.
Syntax for Stack push() Function in C++
void push (const value_type& val); void push (value_type&& val);
val
Value to which the inserted element is initialized. Member type value_type is the type of the elements in the container (defined as an alias of the first class template parameter, T). The function only inserts element and does not return any value. The return type of the function can be thought as void.
Complexity
One call to push_back on the underlying container.
Data races
The container and up to all its contained elements are modified.
Exception safety
Provides the same level of guarantees as the operation performed on the underlying container object.
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/* demonstrate the use of the push() function of the stack by insertion of simple integer values */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> int main() { std::stack<int> newstack; newstack.push(11); newstack.push(22); newstack.push(33); newstack.push(44); std::cout << "Popping out elements?"; newstack.pop(); newstack.pop(); while (!newstack.empty () ) { std::cout << " " << newstack.top(); newstack.pop(); } std:: cout<<'\n'; return 0; }
#include Directive in C++
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.
Syntax for #include Directive in C++
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories. Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor. • In #include directive, comments are not recognized. So in case of #include <a//b>, a//b is treated as filename. • In #include directive, backslash is considered as normal text not escape sequence. So in case of #include <a\nb>, a\nb is treated as filename. • You can use only comment after filename otherwise it will give error.
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/* using #include directive in C language */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { /* * C standard library printf function * defined in the stdio.h header file */ printf("I love you Clementine"); printf("I love you so much"); printf("HappyCodings"); return 0; }
Stack Library top() Function in C++
Access next element. Returns a reference to the top element in the stack. stack::top() function is an inbuilt function in C++ STL, which is defined in <stack> header file. top() is used to access the element at the top of the stack container. In a stack, the top element is the element that is inserted at the last or most recently inserted element. Since stacks are last-in first-out containers, the top element is the last element inserted into the stack. This member function effectively calls member back of the underlying container object.
Syntax for Stack top() Function in C++
#include <stack> reference top(); const_reference top() const;
No parameter is required. Function returns a reference to the top element in the stack.
Complexity
Constant (calling back on the underlying container).
Data races
The container is accessed (neither the const nor the non-const versions modify the container). The reference returned can be used to access or modify the top element.
Exception safety
Provides the same level of guarantees as the operation performed on the container (no-throw guarantee for standard non-empty containers).
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/* C++ Stack top() function returns the value of the top element in the stack. The top element is the one which was recently added on the stack. The last added element is the top element. Of all the elements that are present in a stack the top element stands out and is more significant as all the major operations on the stack are performed at the top element. Be it push, pop or anything all the operations are done at the top most position. */ /* get the reference of the element at the top of the stack by stack top() function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> using namespace std; int main (){ stack<int> MyStack; MyStack.push(10); MyStack.push(20); MyStack.push(30); MyStack.push(40); MyStack.push(50); cout<<"The top element of MyStack is: "; cout<<MyStack.top()<<endl; cout<<"Delete the top element of MyStack.\n"; MyStack.pop(); cout<<"Now, The top element of MyStack is: "; cout<<MyStack.top(); return 0; }
Stack Library empty() Function in C++
Test whether container is empty. Returns whether the stack is empty: i.e. whether its size is zero. stack::empty() function is an inbuilt function in C++ STL, which is defined in <stack>header file. empty() is used to check whether the associated container is empty or not and return true or false accordingly. This member function effectively calls member empty of the underlying container object.
Syntax for Stack empty() Function in C++
#include <stack> bool empty() const;
No parameter passed. Function returns true if the underlying container's size is 0, false otherwise.
Complexity
Constant (calling empty on the underlying container).
Data races
The container is accessed
Exception safety
Provides the same level of guarantees as the operation performed on the container (no-throw guarantee for standard container types).
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/* C++ Stack empty() function is used for testing whether the container is empty or not. In many cases, before extracting the actual elements from the stack, programmers give preference to check whether the stack does have some elements or not. Doing so is advantageous regarding memory and cost. */ /* Test the stack is empty or not by stack empty() function code example. */ #include <bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; int main(){ cout<<"...use of empty function...\n"; int count=0; stack<int> st; //declare the stack st.push(4); //pushed 4 st.push(5); //pushed 5 st.push(6); cout<<"stack elements are:\n"; while(!st.empty()){//stack not empty cout<<"top element is:"<<st.top()<<endl;//print top element st.pop(); count++; } if(st.empty()) //to check for empty stack cout<<"stack empty\n"; cout<<count<<" pop operation performed total to make stack empty\n"; return 0; }
Vectors in C++ Language
In C++, vectors are used to store elements of similar data types. However, unlike arrays, the size of a vector can grow dynamically. That is, we can change the size of the vector during the execution of a program as per our requirements. Vectors are part of the C++ Standard Template Library. To use vectors, we need to include the vector header file in our program.
Declaration for Vectors in C++
std::vector<T> vector_name;
The type parameter <T> specifies the type of the vector. It can be any primitive data type such as int, char, float, etc.
Initialization for Vectors in C++
// Vector initialization method 1 // Initializer list vector<int> vector1 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
We are initializing the vector by providing values directly to the vector. vector1 is initialized with values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
// Vector initialization method 2 vector<int> vector3(5, 12);
Here, 5 is the size of the vector and 8 is the value. This code creates an int vector with size 5 and initializes the vector with the value of 8. So, the vector is equivalent to
vector<int> vector2 = {8, 8, 8, 8, 8};
The vector class provides various methods to perform different operations on vectors. Add Elements to a Vector: To add a single element into a vector, we use the push_back() function. It inserts an element into the end of the vector. Access Elements of a Vector: In C++, we use the index number to access the vector elements. Here, we use the at() function to access the element from the specified index. Change Vector Element: We can change an element of the vector using the same at() function. Delete Elements from C++ Vectors: To delete a single element from a vector, we use the pop_back() function. In C++, the vector header file provides various functions that can be used to perform different operations on a vector. • size(): returns the number of elements present in the vector. • clear(): removes all the elements of the vector. • front(): returns the first element of the vector. • back(): returns the last element of the vector. • empty(): returns 1 (true) if the vector is empty. • capacity(): check the overall size of a vector. Vector iterators are used to point to the memory address of a vector element. In some ways, they act like pointers.
Syntax for Vector Iterators in C++
vector<T>::iterator iteratorName;
We can initialize vector iterators using the begin() and end() functions. The begin() function returns an iterator that points to the first element of the vector. The end() function points to the theoretical element that comes after the final element of the vector.
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/* Vectors in C++ language */ // C++ program to illustrate the capacity function in vector #include <iostream> #include <vector> using namespace std; int main() { vector<int> myvector; for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) myvector.push_back(i); cout << "Size : " << myvector.size(); cout << "\nCapacity : " << myvector.capacity(); cout << "\nMax_Size : " << myvector.max_size(); // resizes the vector size to 4 myvector.resize(4); // prints the vector size after resize() cout << "\nSize : " << myvector.size(); // checks if the vector is empty or not if (myvector.empty() == false) cout << "\nVector is not empty"; else cout << "\nVector is empty"; // Shrinks the vector myvector.shrink_to_fit(); cout << "\nVector elements are: "; for (auto it = myvector.begin(); it != myvector.end(); it++) cout << *it << " "; return 0; }
Functions in C++
The function in C++ language is also known as procedure or subroutine in other programming languages. To perform any task, we can create function. A function can be called many times. It provides modularity and code reusability. Functions are used to provide modularity to a program. Creating an application using function makes it easier to understand, edit, check...
Defining a Function in C++
return-type function-name(parameter1, parameter2, ...) { // function-body }
return type
suggests what the function will return. It can be int, char, some pointer or even a class object. There can be functions which does not return anything, they are mentioned with void.
name
Function name is the name of the function, using the function name it is called.
parameters
Parameters are variables to hold values of arguments passed while function is called. A function may or may not contain parameter list.
body
Function body is the part where the code statements are written. Function declaration, is done to tell the compiler about the existence of the function. Function's return type, its name & parameter list is mentioned. Function body is written in its definition. Functions are called by their names. If the function is without argument, it can be called directly using its name. But for functions with arguments, we have two ways to call them: • Call by Value: In this calling technique we pass the values of arguments which are stored or copied into the formal parameters of functions. Hence, the original values are unchanged only the parameters inside function changes. • Call by Reference: In this we pass the address of the variable as arguments. In this case the formal parameter can be taken as a reference or a pointer, in both the case they will change the values of the original variable.
Advantage of Functions
• Code Reusability: By creating functions in C++, you can call it many times. So we don't need to write the same code again and again. • Code optimization: It makes the code optimized, we don't need to write much code.
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/* function with parameters in C++ language */ // program to print a text #include <iostream> using namespace std; // display a number void displayNum(int n1, float n2) { cout << "The int number is " << n1; cout << "The double number is " << n2; } int main() { int num1 = 5; double num2 = 5.5; // calling the function displayNum(num1, num2); return 0; }
While Loop Statement in C++
In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.
Syntax for While Loop Statement in C++
while (condition) { // body of the loop }
• A while loop evaluates the condition • If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the while loop is executed. • The condition is evaluated again. • This process continues until the condition is false. • When the condition evaluates to false, the loop terminates. Do not forget to increase the variable used in the condition, otherwise the loop will never end!
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/* While Loop Statement in C++ language */ // program to find the sum of positive numbers // if the user enters a negative number, the loop ends // the negative number entered is not added to the sum #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int number; int sum = 0; // take input from the user cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; while (number >= 0) { // add all positive numbers sum += number; // take input again if the number is positive cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; } // display the sum cout << "\nThe sum is " << sum << endl; return 0; }
For Loop Statement in C++
In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.
Syntax of For Loop Statement in C++
for (initialization; condition; update) { // body of-loop }
initialization
initializes variables and is executed only once.
condition
if true, the body of for loop is executed, if false, the for loop is terminated.
update
updates the value of initialized variables and again checks the condition. A new range-based for loop was introduced to work with collections such as arrays and vectors.
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/* For Loop Statement in C++ Language */ // C++ program to find the sum of first n natural numbers // positive integers such as 1,2,3,...n are known as natural numbers #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int num, sum; sum = 0; cout << "Enter a positive integer: "; cin >> num; for (int i = 1; i <= num; ++i) { sum += i; } cout << "Sum = " << sum << endl; return 0; }
main() Function in C++
A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.
Syntax for main() Function in C++
void main() { ............ ............ }
void
void is a keyword in C++ language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value.
main
main is a name of function which is predefined function in C++ library. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value. 1) It cannot be used anywhere in the program a) in particular, it cannot be called recursively b) its address cannot be taken 2) It cannot be predefined and cannot be overloaded: effectively, the name main in the global namespace is reserved for functions (although it can be used to name classes, namespaces, enumerations, and any entity in a non-global namespace, except that a function called "main" cannot be declared with C language linkage in any namespace). 3) It cannot be defined as deleted or (since C++11) declared with C language linkage, constexpr (since C++11), consteval (since C++20), inline, or static. 4) The body of the main function does not need to contain the return statement: if control reaches the end of main without encountering a return statement, the effect is that of executing return 0;. 5) Execution of the return (or the implicit return upon reaching the end of main) is equivalent to first leaving the function normally (which destroys the objects with automatic storage duration) and then calling std::exit with the same argument as the argument of the return. (std::exit then destroys static objects and terminates the program). 6) (since C++14) The return type of the main function cannot be deduced (auto main() {... is not allowed). 7) (since C++20) The main function cannot be a coroutine.
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/* simple code example by main() function in C++ */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int day = 4; switch (day) { case 1: cout << "Monday"; break; case 2: cout << "Tuesday"; break; case 3: cout << "Wednesday"; break; case 4: cout << "Thursday"; break; case 5: cout << "Friday"; break; case 6: cout << "Saturday"; break; case 7: cout << "Sunday"; break; } return 0; }
Stack in C++ Language
LIFO stack. Stacks are a type of container adaptor, specifically designed to operate in a LIFO context (last-in first-out), where elements are inserted and extracted only from one end of the container. stacks are implemented as container adaptors, which are classes that use an encapsulated object of a specific container class as its underlying container, providing a specific set of member functions to access its elements. Elements are pushed/popped from the "back" of the specific container, which is known as the top of the stack.
Syntax for Stack in C++
template <class T, class Container = deque<T> > class stack;
T
Type of the elements. Aliased as member type stack::value_type.
Container
Type of the internal underlying container object where the elements are stored. Its value_type shall be T. Aliased as member type stack::container_type.
Member types
value_type The first template parameter (T) Type of the elements container_type The second template parameter (Container) Type of the underlying container reference container_type::reference usually, value_type& const_reference container_type::const_reference usually, const value_type& size_type an unsigned integral type usually, the same as size_t
Member functions
(constructor) Construct stack (public member function ) stack::emplace: Constructs and inserts new element at the top of stack. stack::empty: Tests whether stack is empty or not. stack::operator= copy version: Assigns new contents to the stack by replacing old ones. stack::operator= move version: Assigns new contents to the stack by replacing old ones. stack::pop: Removes top element from the stack. stack::push copy version: Inserts new element at the top of the stack. stack::push move version: Inserts new element at the top of the stack. stack::size: Returns the total number of elements present in the stack. stack::swap: Exchanges the contents of stack with contents of another stack. stack::top: Returns a reference to the topmost element of the stack.
Non-member function overloads
relational operators Relational operators for stack (function ) swap (stack) Exchange contents of stacks (public member function ) operator==: Tests whether two stacks are equal or not. operator!=: Tests whether two stacks are equal or not. operator<: Tests whether first stack is less than other or not. operator<=: Tests whether first stack is less than or equal to other or not. operator>: Tests whether first stack is greater than other or not. operator>=: Tests whether first stack is greater than or equal to other or not.
Non-member class specializations
uses_allocator<stack> Uses allocator for stack (class template ) The standard container classes vector, deque and list fulfill these requirements. By default, if no container class is specified for a particular stack class instantiation, the standard container deque is used. Stack is a data structure designed to operate in LIFO (Last in First out) context. In stack elements are inserted as well as get removed from only one end. Stack class is container adapter. Container is an objects that hold data of same type. Stack can be created from different sequence containers. If container is not provided it uses default deque container. Container adapters do not support iterators therefore we cannot use them for data manipulation. However they support push() and pop() member functions for data insertion and removal respectively.
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/* Stack in C++ language */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> using namespace std; void newstack(stack <int> ss) { stack <int> sg = ss; while (!sg.empty()) { cout << '\t' << sg.top(); sg.pop(); } cout << '\n'; } int main () { stack <int> newst; newst.push(55); newst.push(44); newst.push(33); newst.push(22); newst.push(11); cout << "The stack newst is : "; newstack(newst); cout << "\n newst.size() : " << newst.size(); cout << "\n newst.top() : " << newst.top(); cout << "\n newst.pop() : "; newst.pop(); newstack(newst); return 0; }


We have already seen user-defined function, the example we have given at the beginning of this tutorial is an example of user-defined function. The functions that we declare and
The problem takes E edges as input and then outputs whehter vertex cover of size K of the graph exists or not. 'Vertex Cover of a Graph' is, a set of vertices S, such that for every edge