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C++ Programming Code Examples

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A simple stack example: push, empty, pop and top

/* A simple stack example: push, empty, pop and top */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> using namespace std; int main() { stack<char> stackObject; stackObject.push('A'); stackObject.push('B'); stackObject.push('C'); stackObject.push('D'); while(!stackObject.empty()) { cout << "Popping: "; cout << stackObject.top() << endl; stackObject.pop(); } return 0; }

Access next element. Returns a reference to the top element in the stack. stack::top() function is an inbuilt function in C++ STL, which is defined in <stack> header file. top() is used to access the element at the top of the stack container. In a stack, the top element is the element that is inserted at the last or most recently inserted element. Since stacks are last-in first-out containers, the top element is the last element inserted into the stack. This member function effectively calls member back of the underlying container object. No parameter is required.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

Insert element. Inserts a new element at the top of the stack, above its current top element. The content of this new element is initialized to a copy of val. This member function effectively calls the member function push_back of the underlying container object. C++ Stack push () function is used for adding new elements at the top of the stack. If we have an array of type stack and by using the push() function we can insert new elements in the stack. The elements are inserted at the top of the stack. The element which is inserted most initially is deleted at the end and vice versa as stacks follow LIFO principle.

LIFO stack. Stacks are a type of container adaptor, specifically designed to operate in a LIFO context (last-in first-out), where elements are inserted and extracted only from one end of the container. stacks are implemented as container adaptors, which are classes that use an encapsulated object of a specific container class as its underlying container, providing a specific set of member functions to access its elements. Elements are pushed/popped from the "back" of the specific container, which is known as the top of the stack.

Test whether container is empty. Returns whether the stack is empty: i.e. whether its size is zero. stack::empty() function is an inbuilt function in C++ STL, which is defined in <stack>header file. empty() is used to check whether the associated container is empty or not and return true or false accordingly. This member function effectively calls member empty of the underlying container object. No parameter passed. Function returns true if the underlying container's size is 0, false otherwise.

Remove top element. Removes the element on top of the stack, effectively reducing its size by one. The C++ function std::stack::pop() removes top element from the stack and reduces size of stack by one. This function calls destructor on removed element. The element removed is the latest element inserted into the stack, whose value can be retrieved by calling member stack::top. This calls the removed element's destructor. This member function effectively calls the member function pop_back of the underlying container object.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

This algorithm takes the input of the 'specific' sequence. It generates random Subsequence from the given character string. A function to generate 'random' sequence of a given length

When writing both single "character & string" literals, it is Necessary to 'Put the Quotation' marks surrounding them to distinguish them from possible variable identifiers or reserved