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Map with comparator(functor)

/* Map with comparator(functor) */ #include <iostream> #include <map> #include <string> using namespace std; class Employee { friend class EmployeeLessThan; public: Employee(const string& first, const string& last) : lastName_(last), firstName_(first) {} string getFirstName( ) const {return(firstName_);} string getLastName( ) const {return(lastName_);} private: string lastName_; string firstName_; }; class EmployeeLessThan { public: bool operator( )(const Employee& emp1, const Employee& emp2) const { if (emp1.lastName_ < emp2.lastName_) return(true); else if (emp1.lastName_ == emp2.lastName_) return(emp1.firstName_ < emp2.firstName_); else return(false); } }; int main( ) { map<Employee, string, EmployeeLessThan> empMap; Employee emp1("B", "A"),emp2("J", "G"),emp3("F", "S"),emp4("G", "G"); empMap[emp1] = "tester"; empMap[emp2] = "coder"; empMap[emp3] = "programmer"; empMap[emp4] = "developer"; for (map<Employee, string, EmployeeLessThan>::const_iterator p = empMap.begin( ); p != empMap.end( ); ++p) { cout << p->first.getFirstName( ) << " " << p->first.getLastName( ) << " is " << p->second << endl; } } /* B A is tester G G is developer J G is coder F S is programmer */

Get type name. name() returns a null-terminated character sequence that may identify the type. The particular representation pointed by the returned value is implementation-defined, and may or may not be different for different types. This function does not accept any parameter.

Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator referring to the past-the-end element in the map container. The past-the-end element is the theoretical element that would follow the last element in the map container. It does not point to any element, and thus shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with map::begin to specify a range including all the elements in the container. If the container is empty, this function returns the same as map::begin.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

Access element. If k matches the key of an element in the container, the function returns a reference to its mapped value. This operator is used to reference the element present at position given inside the operator. It is similar to the at() function, the only difference is that the at() function throws an out-of-range exception when the position is not in the bounds of the size of map, while this operator causes undefined behavior. If k does not match the key of any element in the container, the function inserts a new element with that key and returns a reference to its mapped value. Notice that this always increases the container size by one, even if no mapped value is assigned to the element (the element is constructed using its default constructor). A similar member function, map::at, has the same behavior when an element with the key exists, but throws an exception when it does not.

Return iterator to beginning. Returns an iterator referring to the first element in the map container. Because map containers keep their elements ordered at all times, begin points to the element that goes first following the container's sorting criterion. If the container is empty, the returned iterator value shall not be dereferenced. This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the first element in the container. If the map object is const-qualified, the function returns a const_iterator. Otherwise, it returns an iterator.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.

Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result. • Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

A friend function of a class is defined outside that class' scope but it has the right to access all private and protected members of the class. Even though the prototypes for friend functions appear in the class definition, friends are not member functions. A friend can be a function, function template, or member function, or a class or class template, in which case the entire class and all of its members are friends. If a function is defined as a friend function in C++ programming language, then the protected and private data of a class can be accessed using the function. By using the keyword friend compiler knows the given function is a friend function. For accessing the data, the declaration of a friend function should be done inside the body of a class starting with the keyword friend.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Maps are associative containers that store elements in a mapped fashion. Each element has a key value and a mapped value. No two mapped values can have the same key values. Maps are part of the C++ STL (Standard Template Library). Maps are the associative containers that store sorted key-value pair, in which each key is unique and it can be inserted or deleted but cannot be altered. Values associated with keys can be changed. The key values are good for sorting and identifying elements uniquely. The mapped values are for storing content associated with the key. The two may differ in types, but the member type combines them via a pair type that combines both.

The if...else statement executes two different codes depending upon whether the test expression is true or false. Sometimes, a choice has to be made from more than 2 possibilities. The if...else ladder allows you to check between multiple test expressions and execute different statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.

In C++, constructor is a special method which is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the data members of new object generally. The constructor in C++ has the same name as class or structure. Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object. • Default Constructor: A constructor which has no argument is known as default constructor. It is invoked at the time of creating object.

Allocating memory for "ODBC" Environment handle. Connecting to the data source "db97" using userid and password. Prepare the SQL statement by assigning it to the "statement"