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Merge and splice lists.

/* Merge and splice lists. */ #include <iostream> #include <list> using namespace std; int main() { list<char> listObject1, listObject2, listObject3; int i; for(i = 0; i <10; i+=2) listObject1.push_back(i + 'A'); for(i =1; i <11; i+=2) listObject2.push_back(i + 'A'); cout << "Contents of listObject1:\n"; list<char>::iterator p = listObject1.begin(); while(p != listObject1.end()) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } cout << "\n\n"; cout << "Contents of listObject2:\n"; p = listObject2.begin(); while(p != listObject2.end()) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } cout << "\n\n"; listObject1.merge(listObject2); // now, merge the two lists if(listObject2.empty()) cout << "listObject2 is now empty\n"; cout << "Contents of listObject1 after merge:\n"; p = listObject1.begin(); while(p != listObject1.end()) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } cout << "\n\n"; char str[] = "-splicing-"; for(i = 0; str[i]; i++) listObject3.push_back(str[i]); cout << "Contents of listObject3:\n"; p = listObject3.begin(); while(p != listObject3.end()) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } cout << "\n\n"; p = listObject1.begin(); while(p != listObject1.end()) { if(*p == 'F') listObject1.splice(p, listObject3); p++; } cout << "Contents of listObject1 after splice:\n"; p = listObject1.begin(); while(p != listObject1.end()) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } return 0; }

List is a popularly used sequence container. Container is an object that holds data of same type. List container is implemented as doubly linked-list, hence it provides bidirectional sequential access to it's data. List doesn't provide fast random access, it only supports sequential access in both directions. List allows insertion and deletion operation anywhere within a sequence in constant time. Elements of list can be scattered in different chunks of memory. Container stores necessary information to allow sequential access to it's data. Lists can shrink or expand as needed from both ends at run time. The storage requirement is fulfilled automatically by internal allocator. Zero sized lists are also valid. In that case list.begin() and list.end() points to same location. But behavior of calling front() or back() is undefined. To define the std::list, we have to import the <list> header file.

Return iterator to beginning. Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the list container. Notice that, unlike member list::front, which returns a reference to the first element, this function returns a bidirectional iterator pointing to it. If the container is empty, the returned iterator value shall not be dereferenced. begin() function is used to return an iterator pointing to the first element of the list container. It is different from the front() function because the front function returns a reference to the first element of the container but begin() function returns a bidirectional iterator to the first element of the container. This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the beginning of the sequence container.

Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator referring to the past-the-end element in the list container. The past-the-end element is the theoretical element that would follow the last element in the list container. It does not point to any element, and thus shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with list::begin to specify a range including all the elements in the container. If the container is empty, this function returns the same as list::begin. This function does not accept any parameter.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Transfer elements from list to list. Transfers elements from x into the container, inserting them at position. The list::splice() is a built-in function in C++ STL which is used to transfer elements from one list to another. This effectively inserts those elements into the container and removes them from x, altering the sizes of both containers. The operation does not involve the construction or destruction of any element. They are transferred, no matter whether x is an lvalue or an rvalue, or whether the value_type supports move-construction or not. The first version (1) transfers all the elements of x into the container. The second version (2) transfers only the element pointed by i from x into the container. The third version (3) transfers the range [first,last) from x into the container.

Add element at the end. Adds a new element at the end of the list container, after its current last element. The content of val is copied (or moved) to the new element. This effectively increases the container size by one. The list:push_back() function in C++ STL is used to add a new element to an existing list container. It takes the element to be added as a parameter and adds it to the list container. This function accepts a single parameter which is mandatory value. This refers to the element needed to be added to the list, list_name. This function does not return any value.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result. • Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used.

Test whether container is empty. Returns whether the list container is empty (i.e. whether its size is 0). The C++ list::empty function is used to check whether the list is empty or not. It returns true if the size of the list is zero, else returns false. This function does not modify the container in any way. To clear the content of a list container, see list::clear. No parameter is passed to the function. Function returns true if the container size is 0, false otherwise.

Merge sorted lists. Merges x into the list by transferring all of its elements at their respective ordered positions into the container (both containers shall already be ordered). This effectively removes all the elements in x (which becomes empty), and inserts them into their ordered position within container (which expands in size by the number of elements transferred). The operation is performed without constructing nor destroying any element: they are transferred, no matter whether x is an lvalue or an rvalue, or whether the value_type supports move-construction or not. The template versions with two parameters (2), have the same behavior, but take a specific predicate (comp) to perform the comparison operation between elements. This comparison shall produce a strict weak ordering of the elements (i.e., a consistent transitive comparison, without considering its reflexiveness).

As the name already suggests, these operators help in assigning values to variables. These operators help us in allocating a particular value to the operands. The main simple assignment operator is '='. We have to be sure that both the left and right sides of the operator must have the same data type. We have different levels of operators. Assignment operators are used to assign the value, variable and function to another variable. Assignment operators in C are some of the C Programming Operator, which are useful to assign the values to the declared variables. Let's discuss the various types of the assignment operators such as =, +=, -=, /=, *= and %=. The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language:

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

Linear search is method for searching a value within an array. It 'sequentially' checks one by one of the arrays for the 'target element' until 'match is found' or until all the elements have