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C++ Programming Code Examples

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Reversing an STL String

/* Reversing an STL String */ #include <string> #include <iostream> #include <algorithm> using namespace std; int main () { string strSample ("Hello String! "); cout << strSample << endl; reverse (strSample.begin (), strSample.end ()); cout << strSample; return 0; }

Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator pointing to the past-the-end character of the string. The past-the-end character is a theoretical character that would follow the last character in the string. It shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with string::begin to specify a range including all the characters in the string. If the object is an empty string, this function returns the same as string::begin.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

Strings are objects that represent sequences of characters. The standard string class provides support for such objects with an interface similar to that of a standard container of bytes, but adding features specifically designed to operate with strings of single-byte characters. The string class is an instantiation of the basic_string class template that uses char (i.e., bytes) as its character type, with its default char_traits and allocator types. Note that this class handles bytes independently of the encoding used: If used to handle sequences of multi-byte or variable-length characters (such as UTF-8), all members of this class (such as length or size), as well as its iterators, will still operate in terms of bytes (not actual encoded characters).

A return statement ends the processing of the current function and returns control to the caller of the function. A value-returning function should include a return statement, containing an expression. If an expression is not given on a return statement in a function declared with a non-void return type, the compiler issues an error message. If the data type of the expression is different from the function return type, conversion of the return value takes place as if the value of the expression were assigned to an object with the same function return type.

Return iterator to beginning. Returns an iterator pointing to the first character of the string. This function gives a reference to the first element. The C++ string::begin function returns the iterator pointing to the first character of the string. Note that, Unlike the string::front function, which returns a direct reference to the first character, it returns the iterator pointing to the same character of the string. This function does not return any value.

Reverse range. Reverses the order of the elements in the range [first,last). C++ Algorithm reverse() function is used to reverse the order of the elements within a range [first, last). std::reverse() is a built-in function in C++'s Standard Template Library. The function takes in a beginning iterator, an ending iterator, and reverses the order of the element in the given range. The function calls iter_swap to swap the elements to their new locations. Bidirectional iterators to the initial and final positions of the sequence to be reversed. The range used is [first,last), which contains all the elements between first and last, including the element pointed by first but not the element pointed by last.

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.



Program to finds the volume of tetrahedron. Call the four vertices of the tetrahedron (a, b, c), (d, e, f), (g, h, i), and (p, q, r). Now create a 4-by-4 matrix in which the coordinate triples





In this, Insert item x into the 'priority queue', maintaining heap order. Return a pointer to the node containing the new item. Find the 'smallest' item in the priority queue. Return