 # C++ Programming Code Examples

## C++ > Computer Graphics Code Examples

### Apply the Kruskal's Algorithm to Find the Minimum Spanning Tree of a Graph

/* Apply the Kruskal's Algorithm to Find the Minimum Spanning Tree of a Graph This is a C++ Program to find the minimum spanning tree of the given graph. Kruskal's algorithm is a greedy algorithm in graph theory that finds a minimum spanning tree for a connected weighted graph. This means it finds a subset of the edges that forms a tree that includes every vertex, where the total weight of all the edges in the tree is minimized. If the graph is not connected, then it finds a minimum spanning forest (a minimum spanning tree for each connected component). */ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> #include <iostream> using namespace std; // a structure to represent a weighted edge in graph struct Edge { int src, dest, weight; }; // a structure to represent a connected, undirected and weighted graph struct Graph { // V-> Number of vertices, E-> Number of edges int V, E; // graph is represented as an array of edges. Since the graph is undirected, the edge from src to dest is also edge from dest to src. Both are counted as 1 edge here. struct Edge* edge; }; // Creates a graph with V vertices and E edges struct Graph* createGraph(int V, int E) { struct Graph* graph = (struct Graph*) malloc(sizeof(struct Graph)); graph->V = V; graph->E = E; graph->edge = (struct Edge*) malloc(graph->E * sizeof(struct Edge)); return graph; } // A structure to represent a subset for union-find struct subset { int parent; int rank; }; // A utility function to find set of an element i // (uses path compression technique) int find(struct subset subsets[], int i) { // find root and make root as parent of i (path compression) if (subsets[i].parent != i) subsets[i].parent = find(subsets, subsets[i].parent); return subsets[i].parent; } // A function that does union of two sets of x and y (uses union by rank) void Union(struct subset subsets[], int x, int y) { int xroot = find(subsets, x); int yroot = find(subsets, y); // Attach smaller rank tree under root of high rank tree (Union by Rank) if (subsets[xroot].rank < subsets[yroot].rank) subsets[xroot].parent = yroot; else if (subsets[xroot].rank > subsets[yroot].rank) subsets[yroot].parent = xroot; // If ranks are same, then make one as root and increment its rank by one else { subsets[yroot].parent = xroot; subsets[xroot].rank++; } } // Compare two edges according to their weights. // Used in qsort() for sorting an array of edges int myComp(const void* a, const void* b) { struct Edge* a1 = (struct Edge*) a; struct Edge* b1 = (struct Edge*) b; return a1->weight > b1->weight; } // The main function to construct MST using Kruskal's algorithm void KruskalMST(struct Graph* graph) { int V = graph->V; struct Edge result[V]; // Tnis will store the resultant MST int e = 0; // An index variable, used for result[] int i = 0; // An index variable, used for sorted edges // Step 1: Sort all the edges in non-decreasing order of their weight // If we are not allowed to change the given graph, we can create a copy of array of edges qsort(graph->edge, graph->E, sizeof(graph->edge), myComp); // Allocate memory for creating V ssubsets struct subset *subsets = (struct subset*) malloc(V * sizeof(struct subset)); // Create V subsets with single elements for (int v = 0; v < V; ++v) { subsets[v].parent = v; subsets[v].rank = 0; } // Number of edges to be taken is equal to V-1 while (e < V - 1) { // Step 2: Pick the smallest edge. And increment the index // for next iteration struct Edge next_edge = graph->edge[i++]; int x = find(subsets, next_edge.src); int y = find(subsets, next_edge.dest); // If including this edge does't cause cycle, include it in result and increment the index of result for next edge if (x != y) { result[e++] = next_edge; Union(subsets, x, y); } // Else discard the next_edge } // print the contents of result[] to display the built MST cout<<"Following are the edges in the constructed MST\n"; for (i = 0; i < e; ++i) printf("%d -- %d == %d\n", result[i].src, result[i].dest, result[i].weight); return; } // Driver program to test above functions int main() { /* Let us create following weighted graph 10 0--------1 | \ | 6| \5 |15 | \ | 2--------3 4 */ int V = 4; // Number of vertices in graph int E = 5; // Number of edges in graph struct Graph* graph = createGraph(V, E); // add edge 0-1 graph->edge.src = 0; graph->edge.dest = 1; graph->edge.weight = 10; // add edge 0-2 graph->edge.src = 0; graph->edge.dest = 2; graph->edge.weight = 6; // add edge 0-3 graph->edge.src = 0; graph->edge.dest = 3; graph->edge.weight = 5; // add edge 1-3 graph->edge.src = 1; graph->edge.dest = 3; graph->edge.weight = 15; // add edge 2-3 graph->edge.src = 2; graph->edge.dest = 3; graph->edge.weight = 4; KruskalMST(graph); return 0; }

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

In C++, classes and structs are blueprints that are used to create the instance of a class. Structs are used for lightweight objects such as Rectangle, color, Point, etc. Unlike class, structs in C++ are value type than reference type. It is useful if you have data that is not intended to be modified after creation of struct. C++ Structure is a collection of different data types. It is similar to the class that holds different types of data. A structure is declared by preceding the struct keyword followed by the identifier(structure name). Inside the curly braces, we can declare the member variables of different types.

Allocate memory block. Allocates a block of size bytes of memory, returning a pointer to the beginning of the block. The content of the newly allocated block of memory is not initialized, remaining with indeterminate values. If size is zero, the return value depends on the particular library implementation (it may or may not be a null pointer), but the returned pointer shall not be dereferenced. Malloc function in C++ is used to allocate a specified size of the block of memory dynamically uninitialized. It allocates the memory to the variable on the heap and returns the void pointer pointing to the beginning address of the memory block. The values in the memory block allocated remain uninitialized and indeterminate. In case the size specified in the function is zero then pointer returned must not be dereferenced as it can be a null pointer, and in this case, behavior depends on particular library implementation. When a memory block is allocated dynamically memory is allocated on the heap but the pointer is

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

Sort elements of array. Sorts the num elements of the array pointed to by base, each element size bytes long, using the compar function to determine the order. The sorting algorithm used by this function compares pairs of elements by calling the specified compar function with pointers to them as argument. The function does not return any value, but modifies the content of the array pointed to by base reordering its elements as defined by compar. The order of equivalent elements is undefined.

Check whether eofbit is set. Returns true if the eofbit error state flag is set for the stream. This flag is set by all standard input operations when the End-of-File is reached in the sequence associated with the stream. Note that the value returned by this function depends on the last operation performed on the stream (and not on the next). Operations that attempt to read at the End-of-File fail, and thus both the eofbit and the failbit end up set. This function can be used to check whether the failure is due to reaching the End-of-File or to some other reason.

The sizeof() is an operator that evaluates the size of data type, constants, variable. It is a compile-time operator as it returns the size of any variable or a constant at the compilation time. The size, which is calculated by the sizeof() operator, is the amount of RAM occupied in the computer. The sizeof is a keyword, but it is a compile-time operator that determines the size, in bytes, of a variable or data type. The sizeof operator can be used to get the size of classes, structures, unions and any other user defined data type. The data_type can be the data type of the data, variables, constants, unions, structures, or any other user-defined data type.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C++ programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number. C++ array is beneficial if you have to store similar elements. For example, if we want to store the marks of a student in 6 subjects, then we don't need to define different variables for the marks in the different subject. Instead of that, we can define an array which can store the marks in each subject at the contiguous memory locations.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

The if...else statement executes two different codes depending upon whether the test expression is true or false. Sometimes, a choice has to be made from more than 2 possibilities. The if...else ladder allows you to check between multiple test expressions and execute different statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

In C++, Linked list is a linear collection of data elements, called nodes, each pointing to the next node by means of a pointer. So this is a data structure consisting of a group of nodes

To swap two string in C++, enter the 2 strings, and store both the 'string' in variables say str1 & str2. To swap 2 strings, first make a variable say temp of the same type. 'Place the string1'