 # C++ Programming Code Examples

## C++ > Computer Graphics Code Examples

### Apply the Prim's Algorithm to Find the Minimum Spanning Tree of a Graph

/* Apply the Prim's Algorithm to Find the Minimum Spanning Tree of a Graph This is a C++ Program to find the minimum spanning tree of the given graph using Prims algorihtm. In computer science, Prim's algorithm is a greedy algorithm that finds a minimum spanning tree for a connected weighted undirected graph. This means it finds a subset of the edges that forms a tree that includes every vertex, where the total weight of all the edges in the tree is minimized. */ #include <stdio.h> #include <limits.h> #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Number of vertices in the graph #define V 5 // A utility function to find the vertex with minimum key value, from // the set of vertices not yet included in MST int minKey(int key[], bool mstSet[]) { // Initialize min value int min = INT_MAX, min_index; for (int v = 0; v < V; v++) if (mstSet[v] == false && key[v] < min) min = key[v], min_index = v; return min_index; } // A utility function to print the constructed MST stored in parent[] int printMST(int parent[], int n, int graph[V][V]) { cout<<"Edge Weight\n"; for (int i = 1; i < V; i++) printf("%d - %d %d \n", parent[i], i, graph[i][parent[i]]); } // Function to construct and print MST for a graph represented using adjacency // matrix representation void primMST(int graph[V][V]) { int parent[V]; // Array to store constructed MST int key[V]; // Key values used to pick minimum weight edge in cut bool mstSet[V]; // To represent set of vertices not yet included in MST // Initialize all keys as INFINITE for (int i = 0; i < V; i++) key[i] = INT_MAX, mstSet[i] = false; // Always include first 1st vertex in MST. key = 0; // Make key 0 so that this vertex is picked as first vertex parent = -1; // First node is always root of MST // The MST will have V vertices for (int count = 0; count < V - 1; count++) { // Pick thd minimum key vertex from the set of vertices // not yet included in MST int u = minKey(key, mstSet); // Add the picked vertex to the MST Set mstSet[u] = true; // Update key value and parent index of the adjacent vertices of the picked vertex. Consider only those vertices which are not yet included in MST for (int v = 0; v < V; v++) // graph[u][v] is non zero only for adjacent vertices of m // mstSet[v] is false for vertices not yet included in MST // Update the key only if graph[u][v] is smaller than key[v] if (graph[u][v] && mstSet[v] == false && graph[u][v] < key[v]) parent[v] = u, key[v] = graph[u][v]; } // print the constructed MST printMST(parent, V, graph); } // driver program to test above function int main() { /* Let us create the following graph 2 3 (0)--(1)--(2) | / \ | 6| 8/ \5 |7 | / \ | (3)-------(4) 9 */ int graph[V][V] = { { 0, 2, 0, 6, 0 }, { 2, 0, 3, 8, 5 }, { 0, 3, 0, 0, 7 }, { 6, 8, 0, 0, 9 }, { 0, 5, 7, 9, 0 }, }; // Print the solution primMST(graph); return 0; }

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Logical Operators are used to compare and connect two or more expressions or variables, such that the value of the expression is completely dependent on the original expression or value or variable. We use logical operators to check whether an expression is true or false. If the expression is true, it returns 1 whereas if the expression is false, it returns 0. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0:

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

An array is a collection of data items, all of the same type, accessed using a common name. A one-dimensional array is like a list; A two dimensional array is like a table; The C++ language places no limits on the number of dimensions in an array, though specific implementations may. Some texts refer to one-dimensional arrays as vectors, two-dimensional arrays as matrices, and use the general term arrays when the number of dimensions is unspecified or unimportant. (2D) array in C++ programming is also known as matrix. A matrix can be represented as a table of rows and columns. In C/C++, we can define multi dimensional arrays in simple words as array of arrays. Data in multi dimensional arrays are stored in tabular form (in row major order).

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C++ programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number. C++ array is beneficial if you have to store similar elements. For example, if we want to store the marks of a student in 6 subjects, then we don't need to define different variables for the marks in the different subject. Instead of that, we can define an array which can store the marks in each subject at the contiguous memory locations.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

In the C++ Programming Language, the #define directive allows the definition of macros within your source code. These macro definitions allow constant values to be declared for use throughout your code. Macro definitions are not variables and cannot be changed by your program code like variables. You generally use this syntax when creating constants that represent numbers, strings or expressions. The syntax for creating a constant using #define in the C++ is: #define token value

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

In C++, classes and structs are blueprints that are used to create the instance of a class. Structs are used for lightweight objects such as Rectangle, color, Point, etc. Unlike class, structs in C++ are value type than reference type. It is useful if you have data that is not intended to be modified after creation of struct. C++ Structure is a collection of different data types. It is similar to the class that holds different types of data. A structure is declared by preceding the struct keyword followed by the identifier(structure name). Inside the curly braces, we can declare the member variables of different types.

This C++ example uses a class that contains a constructor used to 'initialize the object'. The class is called ShoeBox. When supplied with a Length, a Height, a Width, the object should

To check the number is a "prime number" or not a prime number in C++, enter a number and 'start checking' for prime number. If the number is divisible by 2 to one less than that

The 'Heapsort' is a comparison-based sorting algorithm. 'Heapsort' can be thought of as an improved 'Selection Sort': like that algorithm, it divides its input into a sorted & an unsorted