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Program to Check the Connectivity of Directed Graph Using BFS

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/* Program to Check the Connectivity of Directed Graph Using BFS This is a C++ Program to check the connectivity of directed graph using BFS. */ #include <iostream> #include <list> #include <queue> using namespace std; /* Class Declaration */ class Graph { private: int V; list<int> *adj; public: Graph(int V) { this->V = V; adj = new list<int> [V]; } void addEdge(int v, int w); void BFS(int s, bool visited[]); Graph getTranspose(); bool isConnected(); }; /* Add Edge to connect v and w */ void Graph::addEdge(int v, int w) { adj[v].push_back(w); //adj[w].push_back(v); } /* A recursive function to print BFS starting from s */ void Graph::BFS(int s, bool visited[]) { list<int> q; list<int>::iterator i; visited[s] = true; q.push_back(s); while (!q.empty()) { s = q.front(); q.pop_front(); for (i = adj[s].begin(); i != adj[s].end(); ++i) { if (!visited[*i]) { visited[*i] = true; q.push_back(*i); } } } } /* Function that returns reverse (or transpose) of this graph */ Graph Graph::getTranspose() { Graph g(V); for (int v = 0; v < V; v++) { list<int>::iterator i; for (i = adj[v].begin(); i != adj[v].end(); ++i) { g.adj[*i].push_back(v); } } return g; } /* Check if Graph is Connected */ bool Graph::isConnected() { bool visited[V]; for (int i = 0; i < V; i++) visited[i] = false; BFS(0, visited); for (int i = 0; i < V; i++) if (visited[i] == false) return false; Graph gr = getTranspose(); for (int i = 0; i < V; i++) visited[i] = false; gr.BFS(0, visited); for (int i = 0; i < V; i++) if (visited[i] == false) return false; return true; } /* Main Contains Menu */ int main() { Graph g(4); g.addEdge(0, 1); g.addEdge(0, 2); g.addEdge(1, 2); g.addEdge(2, 3); g.addEdge(3, 3); if (g.isConnected()) cout << "The Graph 1 is Connected" << endl; else cout << "The Graph 1 is not Connected" << endl; Graph g1(5); g1.addEdge(0, 1); g1.addEdge(1, 2); g1.addEdge(2, 3); g1.addEdge(3, 0); g1.addEdge(2, 4); g1.addEdge(4, 2); if (g1.isConnected()) cout << "The Graph 2 is Connected" << endl; else cout << "The Graph 2 is not Connected" << endl; return 0; }

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

Allocate storage space. Default allocation functions (single-object form). A new operator is used to create the object while a delete operator is used to delete the object. When the object is created by using the new operator, then the object will exist until we explicitly use the delete operator to delete the object. Therefore, we can say that the lifetime of the object is not related to the block structure of the program.

Access first element. Returns a reference to the first element in the list container. The C++ list::front function returns a reference to the first element of the list. Please note that, Unlike the list::begin function, which returns the iterator pointing to the first element, it returns the a direct reference to the same element of the list. Unlike member list::begin, which returns an iterator to this same element, this function returns a direct reference. Calling this function on an empty container causes undefined behavior.

Return iterator to beginning. Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the list container. Notice that, unlike member list::front, which returns a reference to the first element, this function returns a bidirectional iterator pointing to it. If the container is empty, the returned iterator value shall not be dereferenced. begin() function is used to return an iterator pointing to the first element of the list container. It is different from the front() function because the front function returns a reference to the first element of the container but begin() function returns a bidirectional iterator to the first element of the container. This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the beginning of the sequence container.

Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result. • Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used.

Test whether container is empty. Returns whether the list container is empty (i.e. whether its size is 0). The C++ list::empty function is used to check whether the list is empty or not. It returns true if the size of the list is zero, else returns false. This function does not modify the container in any way. To clear the content of a list container, see list::clear. No parameter is passed to the function. Function returns true if the container size is 0, false otherwise.

Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator referring to the past-the-end element in the list container. The past-the-end element is the theoretical element that would follow the last element in the list container. It does not point to any element, and thus shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with list::begin to specify a range including all the elements in the container. If the container is empty, this function returns the same as list::begin. This function does not accept any parameter.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

List is a popularly used sequence container. Container is an object that holds data of same type. List container is implemented as doubly linked-list, hence it provides bidirectional sequential access to it's data. List doesn't provide fast random access, it only supports sequential access in both directions. List allows insertion and deletion operation anywhere within a sequence in constant time. Elements of list can be scattered in different chunks of memory. Container stores necessary information to allow sequential access to it's data. Lists can shrink or expand as needed from both ends at run time. The storage requirement is fulfilled automatically by internal allocator. Zero sized lists are also valid. In that case list.begin() and list.end() points to same location. But behavior of calling front() or back() is undefined. To define the std::list, we have to import the <list> header file.

The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.

Delete first element. Removes the first element in the list container, effectively reducing its size by one. pop_front() is an inbuilt function in C++ STL which is declared in header file. pop_front() is used to pop (delete) the element from the beginning of the list container. The function deletes the first element of the list container, means the second element of the container becomes the first element and the first element from the container is removed from the container. This function decreases the size of the container by 1. This destroys the removed element. pop_front() is an inbuilt function in C++ STL which is declared in header file. pop_front() is used to pop (delete) the element from the beginning of the list container. The function deletes the first element of the list container, means the second element of the container becomes the first element and the first element from the container is removed from the container. This function decreases the size of the container by 1.

Every object in C++ has access to its own address through an important pointer called this pointer. The this pointer is an implicit parameter to all member functions. Therefore, inside a member function, this may be used to refer to the invoking object. Friend functions do not have a this pointer, because friends are not members of a class. Only member functions have a this pointer. In C++ programming, this is a keyword that refers to the current instance of the class. There can be 3 main usage of this keyword in C++: • It can be used to pass current object as a parameter to another method. • It can be used to refer current class instance variable. • It can be used to declare indexers. To understand 'this' pointer, it is important to know how objects look at functions and data members of a class.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

In C++, constructor is a special method which is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the data members of new object generally. The constructor in C++ has the same name as class or structure. Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object. • Default Constructor: A constructor which has no argument is known as default constructor. It is invoked at the time of creating object.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

The pointer in C++ language is a variable, it is also known as locator or indicator that points to an address of a value. In C++, a pointer refers to a variable that holds the address of another variable. Like regular variables, pointers have a data type. For example, a pointer of type integer can hold the address of a variable of type integer. A pointer of character type can hold the address of a variable of character type. You should see a pointer as a symbolic representation of a memory address. With pointers, programs can simulate call-by-reference. They can also create and manipulate dynamic data structures. In C++, a pointer variable refers to a variable pointing to a specific address in a memory pointed by another variable.

Add element at the end. Adds a new element at the end of the list container, after its current last element. The content of val is copied (or moved) to the new element. This effectively increases the container size by one. The list:push_back() function in C++ STL is used to add a new element to an existing list container. It takes the element to be added as a parameter and adds it to the list container. This function accepts a single parameter which is mandatory value. This refers to the element needed to be added to the list, list_name. This function does not return any value.

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop. A loop inside another loop is called a nested loop. The depth of nested loop depends on the complexity of a problem. We can have any number of nested loops as required. Consider a nested loop where the outer loop runs n times and consists of another loop inside it. The inner loop runs m times. Then, the total number of times the inner loop runs during the program execution is n*m.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

To add two numbers using pointer in the C++, you have to enter the 2 number, then make 2 'pointer' type variable of same type say *ptr1 and *ptr2 to initialize the address of both the

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