 # C++ Programming Code Examples

## C++ > Computer Graphics Code Examples

### Program to Find Maximum Number of Edge Disjoint Paths

/* Program to Find Maximum Number of Edge Disjoint Paths This C++ program displays the maximum number of edge disjoint paths present between two vertices. Maximum number of edge disjoint paths refers to the maximum flow or shortest subset path between two vertices. Here is the source code of the C++ program to display the number of paths present between two given vertices on being given a directed graph as input. */ #include <iostream> #include <limits.h> #include <string.h> #include <queue> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; #define V 8 bool bfs(int rGraph[V][V], int s, int t, int parent[]) { bool visited[V]; memset(visited, 0, sizeof(visited)); queue <int> q; q.push(s); visited[s] = true; parent[s] = -1; while (!q.empty()) { int u = q.front(); q.pop(); for (int v = 0; v < V; v++) { if (visited[v] == false && rGraph[u][v] > 0) { q.push(v); parent[v] = u; visited[v] = true; } } } return (visited[t] == true); } int findDisjointPaths(int graph[V][V], int s, int t) { int u, v; int rGraph[V][V]; for (u = 0; u < V; u++) for (v = 0; v < V; v++) { rGraph[u][v] = graph[u][v]; } } int parent[V]; int max_flow = 0; while (bfs(rGraph, s, t, parent)) { int path_flow = INT_MAX; for (v = t; v != s; v = parent[v]) { u = parent[v]; path_flow = min(path_flow, rGraph[u][v]); } for (v = t; v != s; v = parent[v]) { u = parent[v]; rGraph[u][v] -= path_flow; rGraph[v][u] += path_flow; } max_flow += path_flow; } return max_flow; } int main() { int graph[V][V] = { {0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0}, {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0}, {0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1}, {0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1}, {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1}, {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0} }; int s = 0; int t = 7; cout << "There can be maximum " << findDisjointPaths(graph, s, t)<< " edge-disjoint paths from " << s <<" to "<<t; getch(); }

FIFO queue. queues are a type of container adaptor, specifically designed to operate in a FIFO context (first-in first-out), where elements are inserted into one end of the container and extracted from the other. queues are implemented as containers adaptors, which are classes that use an encapsulated object of a specific container class as its underlying container, providing a specific set of member functions to access its elements. Elements are pushed into the "back" of the specific container and popped from its "front". The underlying container may be one of the standard container class template or some other specifically designed container class. This underlying container shall support at least the following operations:

In the C++ Programming Language, the #define directive allows the definition of macros within your source code. These macro definitions allow constant values to be declared for use throughout your code. Macro definitions are not variables and cannot be changed by your program code like variables. You generally use this syntax when creating constants that represent numbers, strings or expressions. The syntax for creating a constant using #define in the C++ is: #define token value

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop. A loop inside another loop is called a nested loop. The depth of nested loop depends on the complexity of a problem. We can have any number of nested loops as required. Consider a nested loop where the outer loop runs n times and consists of another loop inside it. The inner loop runs m times. Then, the total number of times the inner loop runs during the program execution is n*m.

Logical Operators are used to compare and connect two or more expressions or variables, such that the value of the expression is completely dependent on the original expression or value or variable. We use logical operators to check whether an expression is true or false. If the expression is true, it returns 1 whereas if the expression is false, it returns 0. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0:

Check whether eofbit is set. Returns true if the eofbit error state flag is set for the stream. This flag is set by all standard input operations when the End-of-File is reached in the sequence associated with the stream. Note that the value returned by this function depends on the last operation performed on the stream (and not on the next). Operations that attempt to read at the End-of-File fail, and thus both the eofbit and the failbit end up set. This function can be used to check whether the failure is due to reaching the End-of-File or to some other reason.

The getch() is a predefined non-standard function that is defined in conio.h header file. It is mostly used by the Dev C/C++, MS- DOS's compilers like Turbo C to hold the screen until the user passes a single value to exit from the console screen. It can also be used to read a single byte character or string from the keyboard and then print. It does not hold any parameters. It has no buffer area to store the input character in a program. The getch() function does not accept any parameter from the user. It returns the ASCII value of the key pressed by the user as an input.

Access next element. Returns a reference to the next element in the queue. The next element is the "oldest" element in the queue and the same element that is popped out from the queue when queue::pop is called. This member function effectively calls member front of the underlying container object. In C++ STL, Queue is a type of container that follows FIFO (First-in-First-Out) elements arrangement i.e. the elements which insert first will be removed first. In queue, elements are inserted at one end known as "back" and are deleted from another end known as "front". The function front() returns the reference to the first element in the queue i.e. the oldest element in the queue, so it is used to get the first element from the front of the list of a queue.

Inserts a new element at the end of the queue, after its current last element. The content of this new element is initialized to val. This member function effectively calls the member function push_back of the underlying container object. In C++ STL, Queue is a type of container that follows FIFO (First-in-First-Out) elements arrangement i.e. the elements which insert first will be removed first. In queue, elements are inserted at one end known as "back" and are deleted from another end known as "front". In the Data Structure, "push" is an operation to insert an element in any container, "pop" is an operation to remove an element from the container.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

Fill block of memory. Sets the first num bytes of the block of memory pointed by ptr to the specified value (interpreted as an unsigned char). This function converts the value of a character to unsigned character and copies it into each of first num character of the object pointed by the given str[]. If the num is larger than string size, it will be undefined.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Remove next element. Removes the next element in the queue, effectively reducing its size by one. The element removed is the "oldest" element in the queue whose value can be retrieved by calling member queue::front. This calls the removed element's destructor. This member function effectively calls the member function pop_front of the underlying container object. C++ Queue pop() function is used for removing the topmost element of the queue. The function is implied only for deletion of elements.

Test whether container is empty. Returns whether the queue is empty: i.e. whether its size is zero. This member function effectively calls member empty of the underlying container object. Sometimes before actually starting the work with the individual elements of the containers, it is more feasible to look up if the container is empty, so this function finds its usage in such cases. queue::empty() is an inbuilt function in C++ STL which is declared in header file. queue::empty() is used to check whether the associated queue container is empty or not. This function returns either true or false, if the queue is empty (size is 0) then the function returns true, else if the queue is having some value then it will return false.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

Return the smallest. Returns the smallest of a and b. If both are equivalent, a is returned. min() function is a library function of algorithm header, it is used to find the smallest value from given two values, it accepts two values and returns the smallest value and if both the values are the same it returns the first value. The versions for initializer lists (3) return the smallest of all the elements in the list. Returning the first of them if these are more than one. The function uses operator< (or comp, if provided) to compare the values.

An array is a collection of data items, all of the same type, accessed using a common name. A one-dimensional array is like a list; A two dimensional array is like a table; The C++ language places no limits on the number of dimensions in an array, though specific implementations may. Some texts refer to one-dimensional arrays as vectors, two-dimensional arrays as matrices, and use the general term arrays when the number of dimensions is unspecified or unimportant. (2D) array in C++ programming is also known as matrix. A matrix can be represented as a table of rows and columns. In C/C++, we can define multi dimensional arrays in simple words as array of arrays. Data in multi dimensional arrays are stored in tabular form (in row major order).

As the name already suggests, these operators help in assigning values to variables. These operators help us in allocating a particular value to the operands. The main simple assignment operator is '='. We have to be sure that both the left and right sides of the operator must have the same data type. We have different levels of operators. Assignment operators are used to assign the value, variable and function to another variable. Assignment operators in C are some of the C Programming Operator, which are useful to assign the values to the declared variables. Let's discuss the various types of the assignment operators such as =, +=, -=, /=, *= and %=. The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language:

The sizeof() is an operator that evaluates the size of data type, constants, variable. It is a compile-time operator as it returns the size of any variable or a constant at the compilation time. The size, which is calculated by the sizeof() operator, is the amount of RAM occupied in the computer. The sizeof is a keyword, but it is a compile-time operator that determines the size, in bytes, of a variable or data type. The sizeof operator can be used to get the size of classes, structures, unions and any other user defined data type. The data_type can be the data type of the data, variables, constants, unions, structures, or any other user-defined data type.

Randomly select pivot value from the subpart of the array. Partition that subpart so that the values left of the 'pivot' are smaller and to the right are greater from the pivot. And consider

In C++, Linked list is a linear collection of data elements, called nodes, each pointing to the next node by means of a pointer. So this is a data structure consisting of a group of nodes

In C++, a namespace ("the name scope") is an abstract container or environment created to hold a logical grouping of "unique identifiers" or symbols (i.e., names). An identifier defined