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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++ Code Examples

Test program for cursor implementation of linked lists

/* Test program for cursor implementation of linked lists */ #include <iostream.h> #include "CursorList.h" // Simple print method template <class Object> void printList( const List<Object> & theList ) { if( theList.isEmpty( ) ) cout << "Empty list" << endl; else { ListItr<Object> itr = theList.first( ); for( ; !itr.isPastEnd( ); itr.advance( ) ) cout << itr.retrieve( ) << " "; } cout << endl; } vector<List<int>::CursorNode> List<int>::cursorSpace; int main( ) { List<int> theList; ListItr<int> theItr = theList.zeroth( ); int i; printList( theList ); for( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { theList.insert( i, theItr ); printList( theList ); theItr.advance( ); } for( i = 0; i < 10; i += 2 ) theList.remove( i ); for( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) if( ( i % 2 == 0 ) != ( theList.find( i ).isPastEnd( ) ) ) cout << "Find fails!" << endl; cout << "Finished deletions" << endl; printList( theList ); return 0; }

List is a popularly used sequence container. Container is an object that holds data of same type. List container is implemented as doubly linked-list, hence it provides bidirectional sequential access to it's data. List doesn't provide fast random access, it only supports sequential access in both directions. List allows insertion and deletion operation anywhere within a sequence in constant time. Elements of list can be scattered in different chunks of memory. Container stores necessary information to allow sequential access to it's data. Lists can shrink or expand as needed from both ends at run time. The storage requirement is fulfilled automatically by internal allocator. Zero sized lists are also valid. In that case list.begin() and list.end() points to same location. But behavior of calling front() or back() is undefined. To define the std::list, we have to import the <list> header file.

List are containers that allow constant time insertion and deletion anywhere in sequence. List are implemented as doubly linked lists. List allow non-contiguous memory allocation. List perform better insertion extraction and moving of element in any position in container than array, vector and deque. In List the direct access to the element is slow and list is similar to forward_list, but forward list objects are single linked lists and they can only be iterated forwards. insert() function insert elements. The container is extended by inserting new elements before the element at the specified position. This effectively increases the list size by the amount of elements inserted. Unlike other standard sequence containers, list and forward_list objects are specifically designed to be efficient inserting and removing elements in any position, even in the middle of the sequence. The arguments determine how many elements are inserted and to which values they are initialized:

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Advance iterator. Advances the iterator it by n element positions. If it is a random-access iterator, the function uses just once operator+ or operator-. Otherwise, the function uses repeatedly the increase or decrease operator (operator++ or operator--) until n elements have been advanced. This function does not return any value.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

In C++, vectors are used to store elements of similar data types. However, unlike arrays, the size of a vector can grow dynamically. That is, we can change the size of the vector during the execution of a program as per our requirements. Vectors are part of the C++ Standard Template Library. To use vectors, we need to include the vector header file in our program. The vector class provides various methods to perform different operations on vectors. Add Elements to a Vector: To add a single element into a vector, we use the push_back() function. It inserts an element into the end of the vector. Access Elements of a Vector: In C++, we use the index number to access the vector elements. Here, we use the at() function to access the element from the specified index.

Templates are powerful features of C++ which allows us to write generic programs. Similar to function templates, we can use class templates to create a single class to work with different data types. Class templates come in handy as they can make our code shorter and more manageable. A class template starts with the keyword template followed by template parameter(s) inside <> which is followed by the class declaration. T is the template argument which is a placeholder for the data type used, and class is a keyword. Inside the class body, a member variable var and a member function functionName() are both of type T.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

As the name already suggests, these operators help in assigning values to variables. These operators help us in allocating a particular value to the operands. The main simple assignment operator is '='. We have to be sure that both the left and right sides of the operator must have the same data type. We have different levels of operators. Assignment operators are used to assign the value, variable and function to another variable. Assignment operators in C are some of the C Programming Operator, which are useful to assign the values to the declared variables. Let's discuss the various types of the assignment operators such as =, +=, -=, /=, *= and %=. The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language:

A C++ template is a powerful feature added to C++. It allows you to define the generic classes and generic functions and thus provides support for generic programming. Generic programming is a technique where generic types are used as parameters in algorithms so that they can work for a variety of data types. We can define a template for a function. For example, if we have an add() function, we can create versions of the add function for adding the int, float or double type values. Where Ttype: It is a placeholder name for a data type used by the function. It is used within the function definition. It is only a placeholder that the compiler will automatically replace this placeholder with the actual data type. class: A class keyword is used to specify a generic type in a template declaration.

Problem takes 'E edges' as input and outputs dominant set of the graph, implementing the following heuristic. Dominant set of a graph's to find, a set of vertices S, such that for every

In this example, 'frequency of characters' in a String object is computed. To do this, "size()" function is used to find the Length of a string object. Then, the for loop is iterated until the

You have to ask to the user to enter a number and start "multiplying" that number from 1 to 10 and display the multiplication result at the time of multiplying on the screen which is the

C++ program sample to implement Sieve of Eratosthenes. Program initializes an integer array with all the "elements initialized" to 0. Then The Algorithm follows where the each