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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Data Structures Code Examples

To add and subtract two sparse matrices.

/* To add and subtract two sparse matrices. Give two matrices in its simple form. */ #include<stdio.h> #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> int main() { clrscr(); int sparse1[10][3],sparse2[10][3],sum[10][3],diff[10][3]; int m,n,p,q,t1,t2,s,d,element; int i,j; cout<<"Enter the number of rows and columns : "; cin>>m>>n; t1=t2=0; cout<<" Enter the first matrix("<<m<<"*"<<n<<"): "; for(i=1;i<=m;i++) { for(j=1;j<=n;j++) { cin>>element; if(element!=0) { t1=t1+1; sparse1[t1][1]=i; sparse1[t1][2]=j; sparse1[t1][3]=element; } } } sparse1[0][1]=m; sparse1[0][2]=n; sparse1[0][3]=t1; cout<<" Enter the second matrix("<<m<<"*"<<n<<"): "; for(i=1;i<=m;i++) { for(j=1;j<=n;j++) { cin>>element; if(element!=0) { t2=t2+1; sparse2[t2][1]=i; sparse2[t2][2]=j; sparse2[t2][3]=element; } } } sparse2[0][1]=m; sparse2[0][2]=n; sparse2[0][3]=t2; // displaying the first sparse matrix cout<<" The first sparse matrix is : Row Column Element"; cout<<" ----------------------- "; for(i=0;i<=t1;i++) { cout<<sparse1[i][1]<<" "<<sparse1[i][2]<<" "<<sparse1[i][3]<<" "; } // displaying the second sparse matrix cout<<" The second sparse matrix is : Row Column Element"; cout<<" ----------------------- "; for(i=0;i<=t2;i++) { cout<<sparse2[i][1]<<" "<<sparse2[i][2]<<" "<<sparse2[i][3]<<" "; } // Addition and subtraction i=j=s=d=1; while((i<=t1)&&(j<=t2)) { if(sparse1[i][1]==sparse2[j][1]) // if rows are equal { if(sparse1[i][2]==sparse2[j][2]) // if columns are equal { sum[s][1]=diff[d][1]=sparse1[i][1]; sum[s][2]=diff[d][2]=sparse1[i][2]; sum[s][3]=sparse1[i][3]+sparse2[j][3]; diff[d][3]=sparse1[i][3]-sparse2[j][3]; i++; j++; if(sum[s][3]!=0) s++; if(diff[d][3]!=0) d++; } else // if columns are not equal { if(sparse1[i][2]<sparse2[j][2]) { sum[s][1]=diff[d][1]=sparse1[i][1]; sum[s][2]=diff[d][2]=sparse1[i][2]; sum[s][3]=diff[d][3]=sparse1[i][3]; i++; s++; d++; } else { sum[s][1]=diff[d][1]=sparse2[j][1]; sum[s][2]=diff[d][2]=sparse2[j][2]; sum[s][3]=sparse2[j][3]; diff[d][3]=0-sparse2[j][3]; j++; d++; s++; } } } else // if rows are not equal { if(sparse1[i][1]<sparse2[j][1]) { sum[s][1]=diff[d][1]=sparse1[i][1]; sum[s][2]=diff[d][2]=sparse1[i][2]; sum[s][3]=diff[d][3]=sparse1[i][3]; i++; d++; s++; } else { sum[s][1]=diff[d][1]=sparse2[j][1]; sum[s][2]=diff[d][2]=sparse2[j][2]; sum[s][3]=sparse2[j][3]; diff[d][3]=0-sparse2[j][3]; j++; s++; d++; } } } // end of while if(i<=t1) { for(p=i;p<=t1;p++) { sum[s][1]=diff[d][1]=sparse1[p][1]; sum[s][2]=diff[d][2]=sparse1[p][2]; sum[s][3]=diff[d][3]=sparse1[p][3]; s++; d++; } } else if(j<=t2) { for(p=j;p<=t2;p++) { sum[s][1]=diff[d][1]=sparse2[p][1]; sum[s][2]=diff[d][2]=sparse2[p][2]; sum[s][3]=sparse2[p][3]; diff[d][3]=0-sparse2[j][3]; s++; d++; } } // end of addition and subtraction sum[0][1]=diff[0][1]=m; sum[0][2]=diff[0][2]=n; sum[0][3]=s-1; diff[0][3]=d-1; // displaying the sum matrix cout<<" The sum is : Row Column Element"; cout<<" ----------------------- "; for(i=0;i<s;i++) { cout<<sum[i][1]<<" "<<sum[i][2]<<" "<<sum[i][3]<<" "; } // displaying the difference matrix cout<<" The difference is : Row Column Element"; cout<<" ----------------------- "; for(i=0;i<d;i++) { cout<<diff[i][1]<<" "<<diff[i][2]<<" "<<diff[i][3]<<" "; } getch(); return 0; }

The if...else statement executes two different codes depending upon whether the test expression is true or false. Sometimes, a choice has to be made from more than 2 possibilities. The if...else ladder allows you to check between multiple test expressions and execute different statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.

It is a predefined function in "conio.h" (console input output header file) used to clear the console screen. It is a predefined function, by using this function we can clear the data from console (Monitor). Using of clrscr() is always optional but it should be place after variable or function declaration only. It is often used at the beginning of the program (mostly after variable declaration but not necessarily) so that the console is clear for our output.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

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Logical Operators are used to compare and connect two or more expressions or variables, such that the value of the expression is completely dependent on the original expression or value or variable. We use logical operators to check whether an expression is true or false. If the expression is true, it returns 1 whereas if the expression is false, it returns 0. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0:

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The getch() is a predefined non-standard function that is defined in conio.h header file. It is mostly used by the Dev C/C++, MS- DOS's compilers like Turbo C to hold the screen until the user passes a single value to exit from the console screen. It can also be used to read a single byte character or string from the keyboard and then print. It does not hold any parameters. It has no buffer area to store the input character in a program. The getch() function does not accept any parameter from the user. It returns the ASCII value of the key pressed by the user as an input.

The cin object is used to accept input from the standard input device i.e. keyboard. It is defined in the iostream header file. C++ cin statement is the instance of the class istream and is used to read input from the standard input device which is usually a keyboard. The extraction operator(>>) is used along with the object cin for reading inputs. The extraction operator extracts the data from the object cin which is entered using the keyboard. The "c" in cin refers to "character" and "in" means "input". Hence cin means "character input". The cin object is used along with the extraction operator >> in order to receive a stream of characters.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop. A loop inside another loop is called a nested loop. The depth of nested loop depends on the complexity of a problem. We can have any number of nested loops as required. Consider a nested loop where the outer loop runs n times and consists of another loop inside it. The inner loop runs m times. Then, the total number of times the inner loop runs during the program execution is n*m.

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C++ program displays the iterative solution to the Tower of Hanoi problem. Tower Of Hanoi consists of 'three rods' and a number of disks of different sizes which can "Slide Onto" any

Function to find the maximum sum sub-array which includes mid of the sub-array. Take the input of the "Integer Array". Using Divide and Conquer approach break the Array. Compute