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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Data Structures Code Examples

Binary Search Tree with non-recursive traversals

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/* Binary Search Tree with non-recursive traversals This program includes the inserting a node, deleting a node,recursive tree traversal,non-recursive tree traversal,finding the minimum,maximum,leftchild,rightchild,copy a tree to another,making a tree null. */ # include <conio.h> # include <process.h> # include <iostream.h> # include <alloc.h> struct node { int ele; node *left; node *right; }; typedef struct node *nodeptr; class stack { private: struct snode { nodeptr ele; snode *next; }; snode *top; public: stack() { top=NULL; } void push(nodeptr p) { snode *temp; temp = new snode; temp->ele = p; temp->next = top; top=temp; } void pop() { if (top != NULL) { nodeptr t; snode *temp; temp = top; top=temp->next; delete temp; } } nodeptr topele() { if (top !=NULL) return top->ele; else return NULL; } int isempty() { return ((top == NULL) ? 1 : 0); } }; class bstree { public: void insert(int,nodeptr &); void del(int,nodeptr &); int deletemin(nodeptr &); void find(int,nodeptr &); nodeptr findmin(nodeptr); nodeptr findmax(nodeptr); void copy(nodeptr &,nodeptr &); void makeempty(nodeptr &); nodeptr nodecopy(nodeptr &); void preorder(nodeptr); void inorder(nodeptr); void postorder(nodeptr); void preordernr(nodeptr); void inordernr(nodeptr); void postordernr(nodeptr); void leftchild(int,nodeptr &); void rightchild(int,nodeptr &); }; void bstree::insert(int x,nodeptr &p) { if (p==NULL) { p = new node; p->ele=x; p->left=NULL; p->right=NULL; } else { if (x < p->ele) insert(x,p->left); else if (x>p->ele) insert(x,p->right); else cout<<"Element already Exits !"; } } void bstree:: del(int x,nodeptr &p) { nodeptr d; if (p==NULL) cout<<"Element not found "; else if (x < p->ele) del(x,p->left); else if (x > p->ele) del(x,p->right); else if ((p->left == NULL) && (p->right ==NULL)) { d=p; free(d); p=NULL; } else if (p->left == NULL) { d=p; free(d); p=p->right; } else if (p->right ==NULL) { d=p; p=p->left; free(d); } else p->ele=deletemin(p->right); } int bstree::deletemin(nodeptr &p) { int c; if (p->left == NULL) { c=p->ele; p=p->right; return c; } else c=deletemin(p->left); return c; } void bstree::copy(nodeptr &p,nodeptr &p1) { makeempty(p1); p1=nodecopy(p); } void bstree::makeempty(nodeptr &p) { nodeptr d; if (p!=NULL) { makeempty(p->left); makeempty(p->right); d=p; free(d); p=NULL; } } nodeptr bstree::nodecopy(nodeptr &p) { nodeptr temp; if (p == NULL) return p; else { temp = new node; temp->ele=p->ele; temp->left = nodecopy(p->left); temp->right = nodecopy(p->right); return temp; } } nodeptr bstree::findmin(nodeptr p) { if (p==NULL) { cout<<"Tree is empty !"; return p; } else { while (p->left !=NULL) p=p->left; return p; } } nodeptr bstree::findmax(nodeptr p) { if (p==NULL) { cout<<"Tree is empty !"; return p; } else { while (p->right !=NULL) p=p->right; return p; } } void bstree::find(int x,nodeptr &p) { if (p==NULL) cout<<"Element not found !"; else { if (x <p->ele) find(x,p->left); else if ( x> p->ele) find(x,p->right); else cout<<"Element Found !"; } } void bstree::preorder(nodeptr p) { if (p!=NULL) { cout<<p->ele<<"-->"; preorder(p->left); preorder(p->right); } } void bstree::inorder(nodeptr p) { if (p!=NULL) { inorder(p->left); cout<<p->ele<<"-->"; inorder(p->right); } } void bstree::postorder(nodeptr p) { if (p!=NULL) { postorder(p->left); postorder(p->right); cout<<p->ele<<"-->"; } } void bstree::preordernr(nodeptr p) { stack s; while (1) { if (p != NULL) { cout<<p->ele<<"-->"; s.push(p); p=p->left; } else if (s.isempty()) { cout<<"Stack is empty"; return; } else { nodeptr t; t=s.topele(); p=t->right; s.pop(); } } } void bstree::inordernr(nodeptr p) { stack s; while (1) { if (p != NULL) { s.push(p); p=p->left; } else { if (s.isempty()) { cout<<"Stack is empty"; return; } else { p=s.topele(); cout<<p->ele<<"-->"; } s.pop(); p=p->right; } } } void bstree::postordernr(nodeptr p) { stack s; while (1) { if (p != NULL) { s.push(p); p=p->left; } else { if (s.isempty()) { cout<<"Stack is empty"; return; } else if (s.topele()->right == NULL) { p=s.topele(); s.pop(); cout<<p->ele<<"-->"; if (p==s.topele()->right) { cout<<s.topele()->ele<<"-->"; s.pop(); } } if (!s.isempty()) p=s.topele()->right; else p=NULL; } } } void bstree::leftchild(int q,nodeptr &p) { if (p==NULL) cout<<"The node does not exists "; else if (q < p->ele ) leftchild(q,p->left); else if (q > p->ele) leftchild(q,p->right); else if (q == p->ele) { if (p->left != NULL) cout<<"Left child of "<<q<<"is "<<p->left->ele; else cout<<"No Left child !"; } } void bstree::rightchild(int q,nodeptr &p) { if (p==NULL) cout<<"The node does not exists "; else if (q < p->ele ) rightchild(q,p->left); else if (q > p->ele) rightchild(q,p->right); else if (q == p->ele) { if (p->right != NULL) cout<<"Right child of "<<q<<"is "<<p->right->ele; else cout<<"No Right Child !"; } } int main() { int ch,x,leftele,rightele; bstree bst; char c='y'; nodeptr root,root1,min,max; root=NULL; root1=NULL; do { // system("clear"); clrscr(); cout<<" Binary Search Tree "; cout<<"------------------------- "; cout<<" 1.Insertion 2.Deletion 3.NodeCopy "; cout<<" 4.Find 5.Findmax 6.Findmin "; cout<<" 7.Preorder 8.Inorder 9.Postorder "; cout<<" 10.Leftchild 11.Rightchild 0.Exit "; cout<<" Enter your choice :"; cin>>ch; switch(ch) { case 1: cout<<" 1.Insertion "; cout<<"Enter the new element to get inserted : "; cin>>x; bst.insert(x,root); cout<<"Inorder traversal is : "; bst.inorder(root); break; case 2: cout<<" 2.Deletion "; cout<<"Enter the element to get deleted : "; cin>>x; bst.del(x,root); bst.inorder(root); break; case 3: cout<<" 3.Nodecopy "; bst.copy(root,root1); cout<<" The new tree is : "; bst.inorder(root1); break; case 4: cout<<" 4.Find "; cout<<"Enter the element to be searched : "; cin>>x; bst.find(x,root); break; case 5: cout<<" 5.Findmax "; if (root == NULL) cout<<" Tree is empty"; else { max=bst.findmax(root); cout<<"Largest element is : "<<max->ele<<endl; } break; case 6: cout<<" 6.Findmin "; if (root == NULL) cout<<" Tree is empty"; else { min=bst.findmin(root); cout<<"Smallest element is : "<<min->ele<<endl; } break; case 7: cout<<" 7.Preorder "; if (root==NULL) cout<<" Tree is empty"; else { cout<<" Preorder traversal (Non-Recursive) is : "; bst.preordernr(root); cout<<" Preorder traversal (Recursive) is : "; bst.preorder(root); } break; case 8: cout<<" 8.Inorder "; if (root==NULL) cout<<" Tree is empty"; else { cout<<" Inorder traversal (Non-Recursive) is : "; bst.inordernr(root); cout<<" Inorder traversal (Recursive) is : "; bst.inorder(root); } break; case 9: cout<<" 9.Postorder "; if (root==NULL) cout<<" Tree is empty"; else { cout<<" Postorder traversal (Non-Recursive) is : "; bst.postordernr(root); cout<<" Postorder traversal (Recursive) is : "; bst.postorder(root); } break; case 10: cout<<" 10.Finding the left Child "; if (root==NULL) cout<<" Tree is empty"; else { cout<<"Enter the node for which the left child is to be found : "; cin>>leftele; bst.leftchild(leftele,root); } break; case 11: cout<<" 11.Finding the Right Child "; if (root==NULL) cout<<" Tree is empty"; else { cout<<"Enter the node for which the Right child is to be found : "; cin>>rightele; bst.rightchild(rightele,root); } break; case 0: exit(0); } cout<<" Continue (y/n) ? "; cin>>c; }while (c=='y' || c == 'Y'); return 0; }
Standard Input Stream (cin) in C++
The cin object is used to accept input from the standard input device i.e. keyboard. It is defined in the iostream header file. C++ cin statement is the instance of the class istream and is used to read input from the standard input device which is usually a keyboard. The extraction operator(>>) is used along with the object cin for reading inputs. The extraction operator extracts the data from the object cin which is entered using the keyboard.
Syntax for Standard Input Stream (cin) in C++
cin >> var_name;
>>
is the extraction operator.
var_name
is usually a variable, but can also be an element of containers like arrays, vectors, lists, etc. The "c" in cin refers to "character" and "in" means "input". Hence cin means "character input". The cin object is used along with the extraction operator >> in order to receive a stream of characters. The >> operator can also be used more than once in the same statement to accept multiple inputs. The cin object can also be used with other member functions such as getline(), read(), etc. Some of the commonly used member functions are: • cin.get(char &ch): Reads an input character and stores it in ch. • cin.getline(char *buffer, int length): Reads a stream of characters into the string buffer, It stops when: it has read length-1 characters or when it finds an end-of-line character '\n' or the end of the file eof. • cin.read(char *buffer, int n): Reads n bytes (or until the end of the file) from the stream into the buffer. • cin.ignore(int n): Ignores the next n characters from the input stream. • cin.eof(): Returns a non-zero value if the end of file (eof) is reached. The prototype of cin as defined in the iostream header file is: extern istream cin; The cin object in C++ is an object of class istream. It is associated with the standard C input stream stdin. The cin object is ensured to be initialized during or before the first time an object of type ios_base::Init is constructed. After the cin object is constructed, cin.tie() returns &cout. This means that any formatted input operation on cin forces a call to cout.flush() if any characters are pending for output.
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/* Standard Input Stream (cin) in C++ language */ // cin with Member Functions #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { char name[20], address[20]; cout << "Name: "; // use cin with getline() cin.getline(name, 20); cout << "Address: "; cin.getline(address, 20); cout << endl << "You entered " << endl; cout << "Name = " << name << endl; cout << "Address = " << address; return 0; }
Constructors in C++ Language
In C++, constructor is a special method which is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the data members of new object generally. The constructor in C++ has the same name as class or structure. Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object. • Default Constructor: A constructor which has no argument is known as default constructor. It is invoked at the time of creating object.
Syntax for Default Constructor in C++
class_name(parameter1, parameter2, ...) { // constructor Definition }
• Parameterized Constructor: In C++, a constructor with parameters is known as a parameterized constructor. This is the preferred method to initialize member data. These are the constructors with parameter. Using this Constructor you can provide different values to data members of different objects, by passing the appropriate values as argument.
Syntax for Parameterized Constructor in C++
class class_name { public: class_name(variables) //Parameterized constructor declared. { } };
• Copy Constructors: These are special type of Constructors which takes an object as argument, and is used to copy values of data members of one object into other object.
Syntax for Copy Constructors in C++
classname (const classname &obj) { // body of constructor }
The copy constructor is a constructor which creates an object by initializing it with an object of the same class, which has been created previously. The copy constructor is used to - • Initialize one object from another of the same type. • Copy an object to pass it as an argument to a function. • Copy an object to return it from a function. If a copy constructor is not defined in a class, the compiler itself defines one.If the class has pointer variables and has some dynamic memory allocations, then it is a must to have a copy constructor. The most common form of copy constructor is shown here.
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/* A constructor is a special type of member function that is called automatically when an object is created. In C++, a constructor has the same name as that of the class and it does not have a return type. */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; // declare a class class Wall { private: double length; double height; public: // initialize variables with parameterized constructor Wall(double len, double hgt) { length = len; height = hgt; } // copy constructor with a Wall object as parameter // copies data of the obj parameter Wall(Wall &obj) { length = obj.length; height = obj.height; } double calculateArea() { return length * height; } }; int main() { // create an object of Wall class Wall wall1(10.5, 8.6); // copy contents of wall1 to wall2 Wall wall2 = wall1; // print areas of wall1 and wall2 cout << "Area of Wall 1: " << wall1.calculateArea() << endl; cout << "Area of Wall 2: " << wall2.calculateArea(); return 0; }
Break Statement in C++
Break statement in C++ is a loop control statement defined using the break keyword. It is used to stop the current execution and proceed with the next one. When a compiler calls the break statement, it immediately stops the execution of the loop and transfers the control outside the loop and executes the other statements. In the case of a nested loop, break the statement stops the execution of the inner loop and proceeds with the outer loop. The statement itself says it breaks the loop. When the break statement is called in the program, it immediately terminates the loop and transfers the flow control to the statement mentioned outside the loop.
Syntax for Break Statement in C++
// jump-statement; break;
The break statement is used in the following scenario: • When a user is not sure about the number of iterations in the program. • When a user wants to stop the program based on some condition. The break statement terminates the loop where it is defined and execute the other. If the condition is mentioned in the program, based on the condition, it executes the loop. If the condition is true, it executes the conditional statement, and if the break statement is mentioned, it will immediately break the program. otherwise, the loop will iterate until the given condition fails. if the condition is false, it stops the program.
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/* break statement with while loop code example */ // program to find the sum of positive numbers // if the user enters a negative numbers, break ends the loop // the negative number entered is not added to sum #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int number; int sum = 0; while (true) { // take input from the user cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; // break condition if (number < 0) { break; } // add all positive numbers sum += number; } // display the sum cout << "The sum is " << sum << endl; return 0; }
system() Function in C++
Execute system command. Invokes the command processor to execute a command. If command is a null pointer, the function only checks whether a command processor is available through this function, without invoking any command. The effects of invoking a command depend on the system and library implementation, and may cause a program to behave in a non-standard manner or to terminate.
Syntax for system() Function in C++
#include <cstdlib> int system (const char* command);
command
C-string containing the system command to be executed. Or, alternatively, a null pointer, to check for a command processor. If command is a null pointer, the function returns a non-zero value in case a command processor is available and a zero value if it is not. If command is not a null pointer, the value returned depends on the system and library implementations, but it is generally expected to be the status code returned by the called command, if supported.
Data races
The function accesses the array pointed by command. Concurrently calling this function with a null pointer as argument is safe. Otherwise, it depends on the system and library implementation.
Exceptions
No-throw guarantee: this function does not throw exceptions. If command is not a null pointer, it causes undefined behavior.
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/* The system() function is a part of the C/C++ standard library. It is used to pass the commands that can be executed in the command processor or the terminal of the operating system, and finally returns the command after it has been completed. */ /* Execute system command by system() function code example */ // A C++ program that compiles and runs another C++ program #include <bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; int main () { char filename[100]; cout << "Enter file name to compile "; cin.getline(filename, 100); // Build command to execute. For example if the input // file name is a.cpp, then str holds "gcc -o a.out a.cpp" // Here -o is used to specify executable file name string str = "gcc "; str = str + " -o a.out " + filename; // Convert string to const char * as system requires // parameter of type const char * const char *command = str.c_str(); cout << "Compiling file using " << command << endl; system(command); cout << "\nRunning file "; system("./a.out"); return 0; }
Stack push() Function in C++
Insert element. Inserts a new element at the top of the stack, above its current top element. The content of this new element is initialized to a copy of val. This member function effectively calls the member function push_back of the underlying container object. C++ Stack push () function is used for adding new elements at the top of the stack. If we have an array of type stack and by using the push() function we can insert new elements in the stack. The elements are inserted at the top of the stack. The element which is inserted most initially is deleted at the end and vice versa as stacks follow LIFO principle.
Syntax for Stack push() Function in C++
void push (const value_type& val); void push (value_type&& val);
val
Value to which the inserted element is initialized. Member type value_type is the type of the elements in the container (defined as an alias of the first class template parameter, T). The function only inserts element and does not return any value. The return type of the function can be thought as void.
Complexity
One call to push_back on the underlying container.
Data races
The container and up to all its contained elements are modified.
Exception safety
Provides the same level of guarantees as the operation performed on the underlying container object.
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/* demonstrate the use of the push() function of the stack by insertion of simple integer values */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> int main() { std::stack<int> newstack; newstack.push(11); newstack.push(22); newstack.push(33); newstack.push(44); std::cout << "Popping out elements?"; newstack.pop(); newstack.pop(); while (!newstack.empty () ) { std::cout << " " << newstack.top(); newstack.pop(); } std:: cout<<'\n'; return 0; }
main() Function in C++
A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.
Syntax for main() Function in C++
void main() { ............ ............ }
void
void is a keyword in C++ language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value.
main
main is a name of function which is predefined function in C++ library. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value. 1) It cannot be used anywhere in the program a) in particular, it cannot be called recursively b) its address cannot be taken 2) It cannot be predefined and cannot be overloaded: effectively, the name main in the global namespace is reserved for functions (although it can be used to name classes, namespaces, enumerations, and any entity in a non-global namespace, except that a function called "main" cannot be declared with C language linkage in any namespace). 3) It cannot be defined as deleted or (since C++11) declared with C language linkage, constexpr (since C++11), consteval (since C++20), inline, or static. 4) The body of the main function does not need to contain the return statement: if control reaches the end of main without encountering a return statement, the effect is that of executing return 0;. 5) Execution of the return (or the implicit return upon reaching the end of main) is equivalent to first leaving the function normally (which destroys the objects with automatic storage duration) and then calling std::exit with the same argument as the argument of the return. (std::exit then destroys static objects and terminates the program). 6) (since C++14) The return type of the main function cannot be deduced (auto main() {... is not allowed). 7) (since C++20) The main function cannot be a coroutine.
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/* simple code example by main() function in C++ */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int day = 4; switch (day) { case 1: cout << "Monday"; break; case 2: cout << "Tuesday"; break; case 3: cout << "Wednesday"; break; case 4: cout << "Thursday"; break; case 5: cout << "Friday"; break; case 6: cout << "Saturday"; break; case 7: cout << "Sunday"; break; } return 0; }
Algorithm Library min() Function in C++
Return the smallest. Returns the smallest of a and b. If both are equivalent, a is returned. min() function is a library function of algorithm header, it is used to find the smallest value from given two values, it accepts two values and returns the smallest value and if both the values are the same it returns the first value. The versions for initializer lists (3) return the smallest of all the elements in the list. Returning the first of them if these are more than one. The function uses operator< (or comp, if provided) to compare the values.
Syntax for Algorithm min() Function in C++
#include <algorithm> //default (1) template <class T> const T& min (const T& a, const T& b); //custom (2) template <class T, class Compare> const T& min (const T& a, const T& b, Compare comp); //initializer list (3) template <class T> T min (initializer_list<T> il); template <class T, class Compare> T min (initializer_list<T> il, Compare comp);
a, b
Values to compare
comp
Binary function that accepts two values of type T as arguments, and returns a value convertible to bool. The value returned indicates whether the element passed as first argument is considered less than the second. The function shall not modify any of its arguments. This can either be a function pointer or a function object.
il
An initializer_list object. These objects are automatically constructed from initializer list declarators. T shall support being compared with operator<. For (3), T shall be copy constructible. Function returns the lesser of the values passed as arguments.
Complexity
Linear in one less than the number of elements compared (constant for (1) and (2)).
Exceptions
Throws if any comparison throws. Note that invalid arguments cause undefined behavior.
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/* std::min is defined in the header file <algorithm> and is used to find out the smallest of the number passed to it. It returns the first of them, if there are more than one. */ /* accept two values and return the smaller one by min() function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <algorithm> using namespace std; // Defining the binary function bool comp(int a, int b) { return (a < b); } int main() { int a = 5; int b = 7; cout << std::min(a, b, comp) << "\n"; // Returns the first one if both the numbers // are same cout << std::min(7, 7, comp); return 0; }
While Loop Statement in C++
In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.
Syntax for While Loop Statement in C++
while (condition) { // body of the loop }
• A while loop evaluates the condition • If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the while loop is executed. • The condition is evaluated again. • This process continues until the condition is false. • When the condition evaluates to false, the loop terminates. Do not forget to increase the variable used in the condition, otherwise the loop will never end!
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/* While Loop Statement in C++ language */ // program to find the sum of positive numbers // if the user enters a negative number, the loop ends // the negative number entered is not added to the sum #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int number; int sum = 0; // take input from the user cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; while (number >= 0) { // add all positive numbers sum += number; // take input again if the number is positive cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; } // display the sum cout << "\nThe sum is " << sum << endl; return 0; }
Stack Library pop() Function in C++
Remove top element. Removes the element on top of the stack, effectively reducing its size by one. The C++ function std::stack::pop() removes top element from the stack and reduces size of stack by one. This function calls destructor on removed element. The element removed is the latest element inserted into the stack, whose value can be retrieved by calling member stack::top. This calls the removed element's destructor. This member function effectively calls the member function pop_back of the underlying container object.
Syntax for Stack pop() Function in C++
#include <stack> void pop();
The function takes no parameter and is used only for the deletion of the top element. Also since the stack follows LIFO principle we do not need to specify which element is to be deleted as it is by default understood that the top most element will be removed first. The function is used only for the removal of elements from the stack and has no return value. Hence we can say that the return type of the function is void.
Complexity
Constant (calling pop_back on the underlying container).
Data races
The container and up to all its contained elements are modified.
Exception safety
Provides the same level of guarantees as the operation performed on the underlying container object.
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/* pop() function is used to remove or 'pop' an element from the top of the stack(newest or the topmost element in the stack). This is an inbuilt function from C++ Standard Template Library(STL). This function belongs to the <stack> header file. The element is removed from the stack container and the size of the stack is decreased by 1. */ /* removing the topmost element of the stack by Stack pop() function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> using namespace std; int main (){ stack<int> MyStack; MyStack.push(10); MyStack.push(20); MyStack.push(30); MyStack.push(40); MyStack.push(50); cout<<"The top element of the stack is: "<<MyStack.top(); //deletes top element of the stack MyStack.pop(); cout<<"\nNow, the top element of the stack is: "<<MyStack.top(); //deletes next top element of the stack MyStack.pop(); cout<<"\nNow, the top element of the stack is: "<<MyStack.top(); return 0; }
Structures in C++ Language
In C++, classes and structs are blueprints that are used to create the instance of a class. Structs are used for lightweight objects such as Rectangle, color, Point, etc. Unlike class, structs in C++ are value type than reference type. It is useful if you have data that is not intended to be modified after creation of struct. C++ Structure is a collection of different data types. It is similar to the class that holds different types of data.
Syntax for Structures in C++
struct structureName{ member1; member2; member3; . . . memberN; };
A structure is declared by preceding the struct keyword followed by the identifier(structure name). Inside the curly braces, we can declare the member variables of different types. Consider the following situation:
struct Teacher { char name[20]; int id; int age; }
In the above case, Teacher is a structure contains three variables name, id, and age. When the structure is declared, no memory is allocated. When the variable of a structure is created, then the memory is allocated. Let's understand this scenario. Structures in C++ can contain two types of members: • Data Member: These members are normal C++ variables. We can create a structure with variables of different data types in C++. • Member Functions: These members are normal C++ functions. Along with variables, we can also include functions inside a structure declaration. Structure variable can be defined as: Teacher s; Here, s is a structure variable of type Teacher. When the structure variable is created, the memory will be allocated. Teacher structure contains one char variable and two integer variable. Therefore, the memory for one char variable is 1 byte and two ints will be 2*4 = 8. The total memory occupied by the s variable is 9 byte. The variable of the structure can be accessed by simply using the instance of the structure followed by the dot (.) operator and then the field of the structure.
s.id = 4;
We are accessing the id field of the structure Teacher by using the dot(.) operator and assigns the value 4 to the id field. In C++, the struct keyword is optional before in declaration of a variable. In C, it is mandatory.
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/* Structure is a collection of variables of different data types under a single name. It is similar to a class in that, both holds a collecion of data of different data types. */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; struct Person { char name[50]; int age; float salary; }; int main() { Person p1; cout << "Enter Full name: "; cin.get(p1.name, 50); cout << "Enter age: "; cin >> p1.age; cout << "Enter salary: "; cin >> p1.salary; cout << "\nDisplaying Information." << endl; cout << "Name: " << p1.name << endl; cout <<"Age: " << p1.age << endl; cout << "Salary: " << p1.salary; return 0; }
Standard end line (endl) in C++
A predefined object of the class called iostream class is used to insert the new line characters while flushing the stream is called endl in C++. This endl is similar to \n which performs the functionality of inserting new line characters but it does not flush the stream whereas endl does the job of inserting the new line characters while flushing the stream. Hence the statement cout<<endl; will be equal to the statement cout<< '\n' << flush; meaning the new line character used along with flush explicitly becomes equivalent to the endl statement in C++.
Syntax for end line (endl) in C++
cout<< statement to be executed <<endl;
Whenever the program is writing the output data to the stream, all the data will not be written to the terminal at once. Instead, it will be written to the buffer until enough data is collected in the buffer to output to the terminal. But if are using flush in our program, the entire output data will be flushed to the terminal directly without storing anything in the buffer. Whenever there is a need to insert the new line character to display the output in the next line while flushing the stream, we can make use of endl in C++. Whenever there is a need to insert the new line character to display the output in the next line, we can make use of endl in '\n' character but it does not do the job of flushing the stream. So if we want to insert a new line character along with flushing the stream, we make use of endl in C++. Whenever the program is writing the output data to the stream, all the data will not be written to the terminal at once. Instead, it will be written to the buffer until enough data is collected in the buffer to output to the terminal. • It is a manipulator. • It doesn't occupy any memory. • It is a keyword and would not specify any meaning when stored in a string. • We cannot write 'endl' in between double quotations. • It is only supported by C++. • It keeps flushing the queue in the output buffer throughout the process.
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/* Standard end line (endl) in C++ language */ //The header file iostream is imported to enable us to use cout in the program #include <iostream> //a namespace called std is defined using namespace std; //main method is called int main( ) { //cout is used to output the statement cout<< "Welcome to "; //cout is used to output the statement along with endl to start the next statement in the new line and flush the output stream cout<< "C#"<<endl; //cout is used to output the statement along with endl to start the next statement in the new line and flush the output stream cout<< "Learning is fun"<<endl; }
Stack in C++ Language
LIFO stack. Stacks are a type of container adaptor, specifically designed to operate in a LIFO context (last-in first-out), where elements are inserted and extracted only from one end of the container. stacks are implemented as container adaptors, which are classes that use an encapsulated object of a specific container class as its underlying container, providing a specific set of member functions to access its elements. Elements are pushed/popped from the "back" of the specific container, which is known as the top of the stack.
Syntax for Stack in C++
template <class T, class Container = deque<T> > class stack;
T
Type of the elements. Aliased as member type stack::value_type.
Container
Type of the internal underlying container object where the elements are stored. Its value_type shall be T. Aliased as member type stack::container_type.
Member types
value_type The first template parameter (T) Type of the elements container_type The second template parameter (Container) Type of the underlying container reference container_type::reference usually, value_type& const_reference container_type::const_reference usually, const value_type& size_type an unsigned integral type usually, the same as size_t
Member functions
(constructor) Construct stack (public member function ) stack::emplace: Constructs and inserts new element at the top of stack. stack::empty: Tests whether stack is empty or not. stack::operator= copy version: Assigns new contents to the stack by replacing old ones. stack::operator= move version: Assigns new contents to the stack by replacing old ones. stack::pop: Removes top element from the stack. stack::push copy version: Inserts new element at the top of the stack. stack::push move version: Inserts new element at the top of the stack. stack::size: Returns the total number of elements present in the stack. stack::swap: Exchanges the contents of stack with contents of another stack. stack::top: Returns a reference to the topmost element of the stack.
Non-member function overloads
relational operators Relational operators for stack (function ) swap (stack) Exchange contents of stacks (public member function ) operator==: Tests whether two stacks are equal or not. operator!=: Tests whether two stacks are equal or not. operator<: Tests whether first stack is less than other or not. operator<=: Tests whether first stack is less than or equal to other or not. operator>: Tests whether first stack is greater than other or not. operator>=: Tests whether first stack is greater than or equal to other or not.
Non-member class specializations
uses_allocator<stack> Uses allocator for stack (class template ) The standard container classes vector, deque and list fulfill these requirements. By default, if no container class is specified for a particular stack class instantiation, the standard container deque is used. Stack is a data structure designed to operate in LIFO (Last in First out) context. In stack elements are inserted as well as get removed from only one end. Stack class is container adapter. Container is an objects that hold data of same type. Stack can be created from different sequence containers. If container is not provided it uses default deque container. Container adapters do not support iterators therefore we cannot use them for data manipulation. However they support push() and pop() member functions for data insertion and removal respectively.
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/* Stack in C++ language */ #include <iostream> #include <stack> using namespace std; void newstack(stack <int> ss) { stack <int> sg = ss; while (!sg.empty()) { cout << '\t' << sg.top(); sg.pop(); } cout << '\n'; } int main () { stack <int> newst; newst.push(55); newst.push(44); newst.push(33); newst.push(22); newst.push(11); cout << "The stack newst is : "; newstack(newst); cout << "\n newst.size() : " << newst.size(); cout << "\n newst.top() : " << newst.top(); cout << "\n newst.pop() : "; newst.pop(); newstack(newst); return 0; }
clrscr() Function in C++
It is a predefined function in "conio.h" (console input output header file) used to clear the console screen. It is a predefined function, by using this function we can clear the data from console (Monitor). Using of clrscr() is always optional but it should be place after variable or function declaration only. It is often used at the beginning of the program (mostly after variable declaration but not necessarily) so that the console is clear for our output.
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/* clrscr() function is also a non-standard function defined in "conio.h" header. This function is used to clear the console screen. It is often used at the beginning of the program (mostly after variable declaration but not necessarily) so that the console is clear for our output.*/ #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a=10, b=20; int sum=0; clrscr(); // use clrscr() after variable declaration sum=a+b; cout<<"Sum: "<<sum; //clear the console screen clrscr(); getch(); }
Memory Management new Operator in C++
Allocate storage space. Default allocation functions (single-object form). A new operator is used to create the object while a delete operator is used to delete the object. When the object is created by using the new operator, then the object will exist until we explicitly use the delete operator to delete the object. Therefore, we can say that the lifetime of the object is not related to the block structure of the program.
Syntax for new Operator in C++
#include <new> //throwing (1) void* operator new (std::size_t size); //nothrow (2) void* operator new (std::size_t size, const std::nothrow_t& nothrow_value) noexcept; //placement (3) void* operator new (std::size_t size, void* ptr) noexcept;
size
Size in bytes of the requested memory block. This is the size of the type specifier in the new-expression when called automatically by such an expression. If this argument is zero, the function still returns a distinct non-null pointer on success (although dereferencing this pointer leads to undefined behavior). size_t is an integral type.
nothrow_value
The constant nothrow. This parameter is only used to distinguish it from the first version with an overloaded version. When the nothrow constant is passed as second parameter to operator new, operator new returns a null-pointer on failure instead of throwing a bad_alloc exception. nothrow_t is the type of constant nothrow.
ptr
A pointer to an already-allocated memory block of the proper size. If called by a new-expression, the object is initialized (or constructed) at this location. For the first and second versions, function returns a pointer to the newly allocated storage space. For the third version, ptr is returned. • (1) throwing allocation: Allocates size bytes of storage, suitably aligned to represent any object of that size, and returns a non-null pointer to the first byte of this block. On failure, it throws a bad_alloc exception. • (2) nothrow allocation: Same as above (1), except that on failure it returns a null pointer instead of throwing an exception. The default definition allocates memory by calling the the first version: ::operator new (size). If replaced, both the first and second versions shall return pointers with identical properties. • (3) placement: Simply returns ptr (no storage is allocated). Notice though that, if the function is called by a new-expression, the proper initialization will be performed (for class objects, this includes calling its default constructor). The default allocation and deallocation functions are special components of the standard library; They have the following unique properties: • Global: All three versions of operator new are declared in the global namespace, not within the std namespace. • Implicit: The allocating versions ((1) and (2)) are implicitly declared in every translation unit of a C++ program, no matter whether header <new> is included or not. • Replaceable: The allocating versions ((1) and (2)) are also replaceable: A program may provide its own definition that replaces the one provided by default to produce the result described above, or can overload it for specific types. If set_new_handler has been used to define a new_handler function, this new-handler function is called by the default definitions of the allocating versions ((1) and (2)) if they fail to allocate the requested storage. operator new can be called explicitly as a regular function, but in C++, new is an operator with a very specific behavior: An expression with the new operator, first calls function operator new (i.e., this function) with the size of its type specifier as first argument, and if this is successful, it then automatically initializes or constructs the object (if needed). Finally, the expression evaluates as a pointer to the appropriate type.
Data races
Modifies the storage referenced by the returned value. Calls to allocation and deallocation functions that reuse the same unit of storage shall occur in a single total order where each deallocation happens entirely before the next allocation. This shall also apply to the observable behavior of custom replacements for this function.
Exception safety
The first version (1) throws bad_alloc if it fails to allocate storage. Otherwise, it throws no exceptions (no-throw guarantee).
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/* C++ allows us to allocate the memory of a variable or an array in run time. This is known as dynamic memory allocation. The new operator denotes a request for memory allocation on the Free Store. If sufficient memory is available, new operator initializes the memory and returns the address of the newly allocated and initialized memory to the pointer variable. */ /* Allocate storage space by operator new */ // C++ program code example to illustrate dynamic allocation and deallocation of memory using new and delete #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // Pointer initialization to null int* p = NULL; // Request memory for the variable // using new operator p = new(nothrow) int; if (!p) cout << "allocation of memory failed\n"; else { // Store value at allocated address *p = 29; cout << "Value of p: " << *p << endl; } // Request block of memory // using new operator float *r = new float(75.25); cout << "Value of r: " << *r << endl; // Request block of memory of size n int n = 5; int *q = new(nothrow) int[n]; if (!q) cout << "allocation of memory failed\n"; else { for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) q[i] = i+1; cout << "Value store in block of memory: "; for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) cout << q[i] << " "; } // freed the allocated memory delete p; delete r; // freed the block of allocated memory delete[] q; return 0; }
Delete Operator in C++
Deallocate storage space. Default deallocation functions (single-object form). A delete operator is used to deallocate memory space that is dynamically created using the new operator, calloc and malloc() function, etc., at the run time of a program in C++ language. In other words, a delete operator is used to release array and non-array (pointer) objects from the heap, which the new operator dynamically allocates to put variables on heap memory. We can use either the delete operator or delete [ ] operator in our program to delete the deallocated space. A delete operator has a void return type, and hence, it does not return a value.
Syntax for Delete Operator in C++
//ordinary (1) void operator delete (void* ptr) noexcept; //nothrow (2) void operator delete (void* ptr, const std::nothrow_t& nothrow_constant) noexcept; //placement (3) void operator delete (void* ptr, void* voidptr2) noexcept;
ptr
A pointer to the memory block to be released, type-casted to a void*. If this is a null-pointer, the function does nothing. If not null, this pointer value should have been returned by a previous call to operator new, and have not yet been released by a previous call to this function. If the implementation has strict pointer safety, this pointer shall also be a safely-derived pointer.
nothrow_constant
The constant nothrow. This parameter is ignored in the default definition. nothrow_t is the type of constant nothrow.
voidptr2
A void pointer. The value is ignored in the default definition.
size
The first argument passed to the allocation function when the memory block was allocated. std::size_t is an unsigned integral type. This function does not return any value. (1) ordinary delete: Deallocates the memory block pointed by ptr (if not null), releasing the storage space previously allocated to it by a call to operator new and rendering that pointer location invalid. (2) nothrow delete: Same as above (1). The default definition calls the first version (1): ::operator delete(ptr). (3) placement delete: Does nothing. The default allocation and deallocation functions are special components of the standard library; They have the following unique properties: Global: All overloads of operator delete are declared in the global namespace, not within the std namespace. Implicit: The deallocating versions (i.e., all but (3)) are implicitly declared in every translation unit of a C++ program, no matter whether header <new> is included or not. Replaceable: The deallocating versions (i.e., all but (3)) are also replaceable: A program may provide its own definition that replaces the one provided by default or can overload it for specific types. The custom definition shall deallocate the storage referenced by ptr. operator delete is a regular function that can be called explicitly just as any other function. But in C++, delete is an operator with a very specific behavior: An expression with the delete operator, first calls the appropriate destructor (for class types), and then calls a deallocation function. The deallocation function for a class object is a member function named operator delete, if it exists. In all other cases it is a global function operator delete (i.e., this function -- or a more specific overload). If the delete expression is preceded by the scope operator (i.e., ::operator delete), only global deallocation functions are considered. delete expressions that use global deallocation functions always use the signature that takes either a pointer (such as (1)), or a pointer and a size (such as (4)). Preferring always the version with size (4), unless an overload provides a better match for the pointer type. The other signatures ((2) and (3)) are never called by a delete-expression (the delete operator always calls the ordinary version of this function, and exactly once for each of its arguments). These other signatures are only called automatically by a new-expression when their object construction fails (e.g., if the constructor of an object throws while being constructed by a new-expression with nothrow, the matching operator delete function accepting a nothrow argument is called). Non-member deallocation functions shall not be declared in a namespace scope other than the global namespace.
Data races
Modifies the storage referenced by ptr. Calls to allocation and deallocation functions that reuse the same unit of storage shall occur in a single total order where each deallocation happens before the next allocation. This shall also apply to the observable behavior of custom replacements for this function.
Exception safety
No-throw guarantee: this function never throws exceptions. Notice that either an invalid value of ptr, or a value for size that does not match the one passed to the allocation function, causes undefined behavior. Similarly, we can delete the block of allocated memory space using the delete [] operator. delete [ ] pointer_variable; // delete [] ptr; It deallocate for an array.
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/* deallocate storage space by delete operator */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // declaration of variables int *ptr1, *ptr2, sum; // allocated memory space using new operator ptr1 = new int; ptr2 = new int; cout << " Enter first number: "; cin >> *ptr1; cout << " Enter second number: "; cin >> *ptr2; sum = *ptr1 + *ptr2; cout << " Sum of pointer variables = " << sum; // delete pointer variables delete ptr1; delete ptr2; return 0; }
Standard Library free() Function in C++
Deallocate memory block. A block of memory previously allocated by a call to malloc, calloc or realloc is deallocated, making it available again for further allocations. If ptr does not point to a block of memory allocated with the above functions, it causes undefined behavior. If ptr is a null pointer, the function does nothing. Notice that this function does not change the value of ptr itself, hence it still points to the same (now invalid) location. free() function in C++ <cstdlib> library is used to deallocate a memory block in C++. Whenever we call malloc, calloc or realloc function to allocate a memory block dynamically in C++, compiler allocates a block of size bytes of memory and returns a pointer to the start of the block. The new memory block allocated is not initialized but have intermediate values. free() method is used to free such block of memory. In case the pointer mentioned does not point to any memory block then it may lead to an undefined behavior, but does nothing in case of null pointer. Also after the memory block is made available still the pointer points to the same memory location.
Syntax for free() Function in C++
#include <cstdlib> void free (void* ptr);
ptr
Pointer to a memory block previously allocated with malloc, calloc or realloc. This function does not return any value. • Here ptr refers to a pointer pointing to memory block in C++ that has been previously allocated by malloc, calloc or realloc. Here type of pointer is void because it is capable to hold any type of the pointer and can be cast to any type while dereferencing. • In case pointer mentioned in free function is a null pointer then function does nothing as there is memory block for it to deallocate and returns nothing. • And in case the pointer points to a memory block that has not been allocated using any one of malloc, calloc or realloc method then the behavior of free function can not be predicted. The return type of free() function is void, that means this function returns nothing. All it does is simply deallocating the block of memory pointed by the referred pointer.
How free() Function work in C++?
• Free method is a great tool for dynamic memory management. It is present in <cstdlib> header file. • When a memory block is allocated using std::malloc, std::calloc or std::alloc.a pointer is returned. This pointer is passed to free function, for deallocation. This helps in memory management for the compiler dynamically. • In case the pointer is a null pointer then function does nothing as there is no memory being referenced by the pointer. • As the datatype for the pointer is void then its is capable for dereferencing any type of pointer. • In case the value of the pointer mentioned is not one allocated using these three methods then behavior of free function is undefined. Also it is undefined if the memory block being referenced by the pointer has already been deallocated using std::free or std::realloc method. • This method has no impact on the pointer it just frees the memory block, pointer keep referring to the memory block. • All the dynamic memory allocation and deallocation methods work in synchronize manner so that memory block being referred by the pointer for allocation must be free at that time. Differences in delete and free in C++
delete()
• It is an operator. • It de-allocates the memory dynamically. • It should only be used either for the pointers pointing to the memory allocated using the new operator or for a NULL pointer. • This operator calls the destructor after it destroys the allocated memory. • It is faster.
free()
• It is a library function. • It destroys the memory at the runtime. • It should only be used either for the pointers pointing to the memory allocated using malloc() or for a NULL pointer. • This function only frees the memory from the heap. It does not call the destructor. • It is comparatively slower than delete as it is a function.
Data races
Only the storage referenced by ptr is modified. No other storage locations are accessed by the call. If the function releases a unit of storage that is reused by a call to allocation functions (such as calloc or malloc), the functions are synchronized in such a way that the deallocation happens entirely before the next allocation.
Exceptions
No-throw guarantee: this function never throws exceptions. If ptr does not point to a memory block previously allocated with malloc, calloc or realloc, and is not a null pointer, it causes undefined behavior.
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/* The free() function in C++ deallocates a block of memory previously allocated using calloc, malloc or realloc functions, making it available for further allocations code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <cstdlib> #include <cstring> using namespace std; int main() { char *ptr; ptr = (char*) malloc(10*sizeof(char)); strcpy(ptr,"Hello C++"); cout << "Before reallocating: " << ptr << endl; /* reallocating memory */ ptr = (char*) realloc(ptr,20); strcpy(ptr,"Hello, Welcome to C++"); cout << "After reallocating: " <<ptr << endl; free(ptr); /* prints a garbage value after ptr is free */ cout << endl << "Garbage Value: " << ptr; return 0; }
Switch Case Statement in C++
Switch statement in C tests the value of a variable and compares it with multiple cases. Once the case match is found, a block of statements associated with that particular case is executed. Each case in a block of a switch has a different name/number which is referred to as an identifier. The value provided by the user is compared with all the cases inside the switch block until the match is found. If a case match is NOT found, then the default statement is executed, and the control goes out of the switch block.
Syntax for Switch Case Statement in C++
switch( expression ) { case value-1: Block-1; Break; case value-2: Block-2; Break; case value-n: Block-n; Break; default: Block-1; Break; } Statement-x;
• The expression can be integer expression or a character expression. • Value-1, 2, n are case labels which are used to identify each case individually. Remember that case labels should not be same as it may create a problem while executing a program. Suppose we have two cases with the same label as '1'. Then while executing the program, the case that appears first will be executed even though you want the program to execute a second case. This creates problems in the program and does not provide the desired output. • Case labels always end with a colon ( : ). Each of these cases is associated with a block. • A block is nothing but multiple statements which are grouped for a particular case. • Whenever the switch is executed, the value of test-expression is compared with all the cases which we have defined inside the switch. Suppose the test expression contains value 4. This value is compared with all the cases until case whose label four is found in the program. As soon as a case is found the block of statements associated with that particular case is executed and control goes out of the switch. • The break keyword in each case indicates the end of a particular case. If we do not put the break in each case then even though the specific case is executed, the switch in C will continue to execute all the cases until the end is reached. This should not happen; hence we always have to put break keyword in each case. Break will terminate the case once it is executed and the control will fall out of the switch. • The default case is an optional one. Whenever the value of test-expression is not matched with any of the cases inside the switch, then the default will be executed. Otherwise, it is not necessary to write default in the switch. • Once the switch is executed the control will go to the statement-x, and the execution of a program will continue.
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/* the switch statement helps in testing the equality of a variable against a set of values */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // local variable declaration: char grade = 'D'; switch(grade) { case 'A' : cout << "Excellent!" << endl; break; case 'B' : case 'C' : cout << "Well done" << endl; break; case 'D' : cout << "You passed" << endl; break; case 'F' : cout << "Better try again" << endl; break; default : cout << "Invalid grade" << endl; } cout << "Your grade is " << grade << endl; return 0; }
Logical Operators in C++
Logical Operators are used to compare and connect two or more expressions or variables, such that the value of the expression is completely dependent on the original expression or value or variable. We use logical operators to check whether an expression is true or false. If the expression is true, it returns 1 whereas if the expression is false, it returns 0. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0:
&&
Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A && B) is false. The logical AND operator && returns true - if and only if all the operands are true. false - if one or more operands are false.
||
Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A || B) is true. The logical OR operator || returns true - if one or more of the operands are true. false - if and only if all the operands are false.
!
Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. !(A && B) is true. The logical NOT operator ! is a unary operator i.e. it takes only one operand. It returns true when the operand is false, and false when the operand is true.
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/* The operator ! is the C++ operator for the Boolean operation NOT. It has only one operand, to its right, and inverts it, producing false if its operand is true, and true if its operand is false. Basically, it returns the opposite Boolean value of evaluating its operand. The logical operators && and || are used when evaluating two expressions to obtain a single relational result. The operator && corresponds to the Boolean logical operation AND, which yields true if both its operands are true, and false otherwise. */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; main() { int a = 5; int b = 20; int c ; if(a && b) { cout << "Line 1 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } if(a || b) { cout << "Line 2 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } /* Let's change the values of a and b */ a = 0; b = 10; if(a && b) { cout << "Line 3 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } else { cout << "Line 4 - Condition is not true"<< endl ; } if(!(a && b)) { cout << "Line 5 - Condition is true"<< endl ; } return 0; }
If Else Statement in C++
In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement,
Syntax for If Statement in C++
if (condition) { // body of if statement }
The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.
Syntax for If...Else Statement
if (condition) { // block of code if condition is true } else { // block of code if condition is false }
The if..else statement evaluates the condition inside the parenthesis. If the condition evaluates true, the code inside the body of if is executed, the code inside the body of else is skipped from execution. If the condition evaluates false, the code inside the body of else is executed, the code inside the body of if is skipped from execution. The if...else statement is used to execute a block of code among two alternatives. However, if we need to make a choice between more than two alternatives, we use the if...else if...else statement.
Syntax for If...Else...Else If Statement in C++
if (condition1) { // code block 1 } else if (condition2){ // code block 2 } else { // code block 3 }
• If condition1 evaluates to true, the code block 1 is executed. • If condition1 evaluates to false, then condition2 is evaluated. • If condition2 is true, the code block 2 is executed. • If condition2 is false, the code block 3 is executed. There can be more than one else if statement but only one if and else statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
Syntax for If Else If Ladder in C++
if (condition) statement 1; else if (condition) statement 2; . . else statement;
Working of the if-else-if ladder: 1. Control falls into the if block. 2. The flow jumps to Condition 1. 3. Condition is tested. If Condition yields true, goto Step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 5. 4. The present block is executed. Goto Step 7. 5. The flow jumps to Condition 2. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 6. 6. The flow jumps to Condition 3. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, execute else block. Goto Step 7. 7. Exits the if-else-if ladder. • The if else ladder statement in C++ programming language is used to check set of conditions in sequence. • This is useful when we want to selectively executes one code block(out of many) based on certain conditions. • It allows us to check for multiple condition expressions and execute different code blocks for more than two conditions. • A condition expression is tested only when all previous if conditions in if-else ladder is false. • If any of the conditional expression evaluates to true, then it will execute the corresponding code block and exits whole if-else ladder.
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/* If Else Statement in C++ Language */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // local variable declaration: int a = 100; // check the boolean condition if( a < 20 ) { // if condition is true then print the following cout << "a is less than 20;" << endl; } else { // if condition is false then print the following cout << "a is not less than 20;" << endl; } cout << "value of a is : " << a << endl; return 0; }
Standard Output Stream (cout) in C++
The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout.
Syntax for cout in C++
cout << var_name; //or cout << "Some String";
The syntax of the cout object in C++: cout << var_name; Or cout << "Some String";
<<
is the insertion operator
var_name
is usually a variable, but can also be an array element or elements of containers like vectors, lists, maps, etc. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters. The << operator can be used more than once with a combination of variables, strings, and manipulators. cout is used for displaying data on the screen. The operator << called as insertion operator or put to operator. The Insertion operator can be overloaded. Insertion operator is similar to the printf() operation in C. cout is the object of ostream class. Data flow direction is from variable to output device. Multiple outputs can be displayed using cout.
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/* standard output stream (cout) in C++ language */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { string str = "Do not interrupt me"; char ch = 'm'; // use cout with write() cout.write(str,6); cout << endl; // use cout with put() cout.put(ch); return 0; }
Classes and Objects in C++ Language
The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.
C++ Class Definitions
When you define a class, you define a blueprint for a data type. This doesn't actually define any data, but it does define what the class name means, that is, what an object of the class will consist of and what operations can be performed on such an object. A class definition starts with the keyword class followed by the class name; and the class body, enclosed by a pair of curly braces. A class definition must be followed either by a semicolon or a list of declarations. For example, we defined the Box data type using the keyword class as follows:
class Box { public: double length; // Length of a box double breadth; // Breadth of a box double height; // Height of a box };
The keyword public determines the access attributes of the members of the class that follows it. A public member can be accessed from outside the class anywhere within the scope of the class object. You can also specify the members of a class as private or protected which we will discuss in a sub-section.
Define C++ Objects
A class provides the blueprints for objects, so basically an object is created from a class. We declare objects of a class with exactly the same sort of declaration that we declare variables of basic types. Following statements declare two objects of class Box:
Box Box1; // Declare Box1 of type Box Box Box2; // Declare Box2 of type Box
Both of the objects Box1 and Box2 will have their own copy of data members.
Accessing the Data Members
The public data members of objects of a class can be accessed using the direct member access operator (.). It is important to note that private and protected members can not be accessed directly using direct member access operator (.).
Classes and Objects in Detail
There are further interesting concepts related to C++ Classes and Objects which we will discuss in various sub-sections listed below: • Class Member Functions: A member function of a class is a function that has its definition or its prototype within the class definition like any other variable. • Class Access Modifiers: A class member can be defined as public, private or protected. By default members would be assumed as private. • Constructor & Destructor: A class constructor is a special function in a class that is called when a new object of the class is created. A destructor is also a special function which is called when created object is deleted. • Copy Constructor: The copy constructor is a constructor which creates an object by initializing it with an object of the same class, which has been created previously. • Friend Functions: A friend function is permitted full access to private and protected members of a class. • Inline Functions: With an inline function, the compiler tries to expand the code in the body of the function in place of a call to the function. • this Pointer: Every object has a special pointer this which points to the object itself. • Pointer to C++ Classes: A pointer to a class is done exactly the same way a pointer to a structure is. In fact a class is really just a structure with functions in it. • Static Members of a Class: Both data members and function members of a class can be declared as static.
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/* using public and private in C++ Class */ // Program to illustrate the working of // public and private in C++ Class #include <iostream> using namespace std; class Room { private: double length; double breadth; double height; public: // function to initialize private variables void initData(double len, double brth, double hgt) { length = len; breadth = brth; height = hgt; } double calculateArea() { return length * breadth; } double calculateVolume() { return length * breadth * height; } }; int main() { // create object of Room class Room room1; // pass the values of private variables as arguments room1.initData(42.5, 30.8, 19.2); cout << "Area of Room = " << room1.calculateArea() << endl; cout << "Volume of Room = " << room1.calculateVolume() << endl; return 0; }
#include Directive in C++
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.
Syntax for #include Directive in C++
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories. Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor. • In #include directive, comments are not recognized. So in case of #include <a//b>, a//b is treated as filename. • In #include directive, backslash is considered as normal text not escape sequence. So in case of #include <a\nb>, a\nb is treated as filename. • You can use only comment after filename otherwise it will give error.
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/* using #include directive in C language */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { /* * C standard library printf function * defined in the stdio.h header file */ printf("I love you Clementine"); printf("I love you so much"); printf("HappyCodings"); return 0; }
exit() Function in C++
The exit function terminates the program normally. Automatic objects are not destroyed, but static objects are. Then, all functions registered with atexit are called in the opposite order of registration. The code is returned to the operating system. An exit code of 0 or EXIT_SUCCESS means successful completion. If code is EXIT_FAILURE, an indication of program failure is returned to the operating system. Other values of code are implementation-defined.
Syntax for exit() Function in C++
void exit (int status);
status
Status code. If this is 0 or EXIT_SUCCESS, it indicates success. If it is EXIT_FAILURE, it indicates failure. Calls all functions registered with the atexit() function, and destroys C++ objects with static storage duration, all in last-in-first-out (LIFO) order. C++ objects with static storage duration are destroyed in the reverse order of the completion of their constructor. (Automatic objects are not destroyed as a result of calling exit().) Functions registered with atexit() are called in the reverse order of their registration. A function registered with atexit(), before an object obj1 of static storage duration is initialized, will not be called until obj1's destruction has completed. A function registered with atexit(), after an object obj2 of static storage duration is initialized, will be called before obj2's destruction starts. Normal program termination performs the following (in the same order): • Objects associated with the current thread with thread storage duration are destroyed (C++11 only). • Objects with static storage duration are destroyed (C++) and functions registered with atexit are called. • All C streams (open with functions in <cstdio>) are closed (and flushed, if buffered), and all files created with tmpfile are removed. • Control is returned to the host environment. Note that objects with automatic storage are not destroyed by calling exit (C++). If status is zero or EXIT_SUCCESS, a successful termination status is returned to the host environment. If status is EXIT_FAILURE, an unsuccessful termination status is returned to the host environment. Otherwise, the status returned depends on the system and library implementation. Flushes all buffers, and closes all open files. All files opened with tmpfile() are deleted. Returns control to the host environment from the program. exit() returns no values.
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/* terminate the process normally, performing the regular cleanup for terminating programs by exit() function code example */ #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int i; cout<<"Enter a non-zero value: "; //user input cin>>i; if(i) // checks whether the user input is non-zero or not { cout<<"Valid input.\n"; } else { cout<<"ERROR!"; //the program exists if the value is 0 exit(0); } cout<<"The input was : "<<i; }
If Else If Ladder in C/C++
The if...else statement executes two different codes depending upon whether the test expression is true or false. Sometimes, a choice has to be made from more than 2 possibilities. The if...else ladder allows you to check between multiple test expressions and execute different statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
Syntax of if...else Ladder in C++
if (Condition1) { Statement1; } else if(Condition2) { Statement2; } . . . else if(ConditionN) { StatementN; } else { Default_Statement; }
In the above syntax of if-else-if, if the Condition1 is TRUE then the Statement1 will be executed and control goes to next statement in the program following if-else-if ladder. If Condition1 is FALSE then Condition2 will be checked, if Condition2 is TRUE then Statement2 will be executed and control goes to next statement in the program following if-else-if ladder. Similarly, if Condition2 is FALSE then next condition will be checked and the process continues. If all the conditions in the if-else-if ladder are evaluated to FALSE, then Default_Statement will be executed.
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/* write a C program which demonstrate use of if-else-if ladder statement */ /* Program to Print Day Names using Else If Ladder in C++*/ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int day; cout << "Enter Day Number: "; cin >> day; cout << "Day is "; if (day == 1) cout << "Sunday" << endl; else if (day == 2) cout << "Monday" << endl; else if (day == 3) cout << "Tuesday" << endl; else if (day == 4) cout << "Wednesday" << endl; else if (day == 5) cout << "Thursday" << endl; else if (day == 6) cout << "Friday" << endl; else cout << "Saturday" << endl; return 0; }


A Queue Node (Queue is implemented using Doubly Linked List). And a FIFO collection of Queue Nodes. A hash (Collection of pointers to Queue Nodes). A utility function to create
The Time complexity to generate this code is 'O(v*e)'. This algorithm takes the input of the number of vertexes for the tree. Then it takes the input if "Vertex Pairs" which have an edge