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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > For Loops and While Loops Code Examples

for loop is something similar to while loop but it is more complex.

/* for loop is something similar to while loop but it is more complex. for loop is constructed from acontrol statement that determines how many times the loop will run and a command section. Command section is either a single command or a block of commands. */ //for single statement for(control statement) statement; //for multiple statement for(control statement) { block of statement } // Control statement itself has three parts: for ( initialization; test condition; run every time command ) /* Initialization part is performed only once at for loop start. We can initialize a loop variable here. Test condition is the most important part of the loop. Loop will continue to run if this condition is valid (true). If the condition becomes invalid (false) then the loop will terminate. Run every time command section will be performed in every loop cycle. We use this part to reach the final condition for terminating the loop. For example we can increase or decrease loop variable's value in a way that after specified number of cycles the loop condition becomes invalid and for loop can terminate. */ #include <stdio.h> int main () { int a; /* for loop execution */ for( a = 10; a < 20; a = a + 1 ){ printf("value of a: %d\n", a); } return 0; }

A return statement ends the processing of the current function and returns control to the caller of the function. A value-returning function should include a return statement, containing an expression. If an expression is not given on a return statement in a function declared with a non-void return type, the compiler issues an error message. If the data type of the expression is different from the function return type, conversion of the return value takes place as if the value of the expression were assigned to an object with the same function return type.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

The C++ comments are statements that are not executed by the compiler. The comments in C++ programming can be used to provide explanation of the code, variable, method or class. If we write comments on our code, it will be easier for us to understand the code in the future. Also, it will be easier for your fellow developers to understand the code. By the help of comments, you can hide the program code also. There are two types of comments in C++: • Single Line comment. • Multi Line comment

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop. A loop inside another loop is called a nested loop. The depth of nested loop depends on the complexity of a problem. We can have any number of nested loops as required. Consider a nested loop where the outer loop runs n times and consists of another loop inside it. The inner loop runs m times. Then, the total number of times the inner loop runs during the program execution is n*m.

A relational operator is used to check the relationship between two operands. C++ Relational Operators are used to relate or compare given operands. Relational operations are like checking if two operands are equal or not equal, greater or lesser, etc. Relational Operators are also called Comparison Operators.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

"Constructor" is automatically called when an object create. It is "special member function" of the class. Variable declaration, constructor without argument, and which constructor has







'Insert element' into the vector. Deleting last element of the vector. Size of the vector and Display by index. "Dislplay by iterator". Clear the vector. Enter value to be inserted. Display

In this program, user is asked to entered the number of rows r & columns c. The value of r & c should be less than 100 in this program. Then, the program adds these two matrices,