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C++ > Games Code Examples

Shiffling Cards - Its a cool game to see how fat can your mind

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/* Shiffling Cards - Its a cool game to see how fat can your mind runs when you see cards shuffling in front of you. Nice game for a beginner like me */ #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> #include<graphics.h> #include<dos.h> #include<stdlib.h> #include<time.h> void swap(char [],char []); int card1[] = { 20,20 , 50,20 , 50,100 , 20,100 , 20,20 }; int card2[] = { 80,20 , 110,20 , 110,100 , 80,100 , 80,20 }; int card3[] = { 140,20 , 170,20 , 170,100 , 140,100 , 140,20 }; char val[3][2]={ "1" , "2", "3" }; void main() { clrscr(); char count[2]="0"; int swapnum=0; //for number of times to swap the cards int driver,mode; driver=DETECT; initgraph(&driver , &mode , "c:\tc\bgi"); setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL,YELLOW); fillpoly(5,card1); fillpoly(5,card2); fillpoly(5,card3); settextstyle(GOTHIC_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,6); setcolor(BLUE); moveto(25,25); outtext(val[0]); moveto(85,25); outtext(val[1]); moveto(145,25); outtext(val[2]); do { int num=0; int choice[2]; count[0]++; delay(1500); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,2); moveto(20,150); outtext("No. of Times Cards have been swapped:"); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,3); moveto(20 + swapnum*20,170); outtext(count); setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL,YELLOW); fillpoly(5,card1); fillpoly(5,card2); fillpoly(5,card3); do { randomize(); choice[num]= (rand() + num) % 3; switch(choice[num]) { case 0: setfillstyle(CLOSE_DOT_FILL,BLUE); fillpoly(5,card1); break; case 1: setfillstyle(CLOSE_DOT_FILL,BLUE); fillpoly(5,card2); break; case 2: setfillstyle(CLOSE_DOT_FILL,BLUE); fillpoly(5,card3); break; } num++; }while(num<2); swap(val[(choice[0])],val[(choice[1])]); }while(swapnum++ < 6); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,3); moveto(20,200); outtext("What is card number 2"); char ans; ans=getch(); if(ans==val[1][0]) { moveto(20,230); outtext("HURRAY"); } else { moveto(20,230); outtext("YOU DUMBO"); } getch(); closegraph(); } void swap(char a[], char b[]) { char c; c=a[0]; a[0]=b[0]; b[0]=c; }

delay() function is used to hold the program's execution for given number of milliseconds, it is declared in dos.h header file. There can be many instances when we need to create a delay in our programs. C++ provides us with an easy way to do so. We can use a delay() function for this purpose in our code. We can run the code after a specific time in C++ using delay() function.

Switch statement in C tests the value of a variable and compares it with multiple cases. Once the case match is found, a block of statements associated with that particular case is executed. Each case in a block of a switch has a different name/number which is referred to as an identifier. The value provided by the user is compared with all the cases inside the switch block until the match is found. If a case match is NOT found, then the default statement is executed, and the control goes out of the switch block. • The expression can be integer expression or a character expression. • Value-1, 2, n are case labels which are used to identify each case individually. Remember that case labels should not be same as it may create a problem while executing a program. Suppose we have two cases with the same label as '1'. Then while executing the program, the case that appears first will be executed even though you want the program to execute a second case. This creates problems in the program and

The header file graphics.h contains setfillstyle() function which sets the current fill pattern and fill color. Current fill pattern and fill color is used to fill the area. setfillstyle sets the current fill pattern and fill color. To set a user-defined fill pattern, do not give a pattern of 12 (USER_FILL) to setfillstyle; instead, call setfillpattern.

Function moves the current position(cp) to (x,y). The header file graphics.h contains moveto() function which changes the current position to (x, y). Means if you want to move a point from the current position to a new position then you can use this function. outtext is the function used to display the given string on graphics mode. It uses the font style set by settextstyle and the current position. The current position can be changed with moveto function. Alternatively you can use outtextxy function which takes xpos, ypos and string for displaying at a particular location. outtextxy does the work of both moveto and outtext functions.

Settextstyle function is used to change the way in which text appears, using it we can modify the size of text, change direction of text and change the font of text. settextstyle sets the text font, the direction in which text is displayed, and the size of the characters. A call to settextstyle affects all text output by outtext and outtextxy.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

outtext() function is used to display the string at the current position on the screen. This function displays the given string in the graphics mode. It uses the settextstyle() function in order to set the font style of the string and moveto() function in order to change current position. outtext displays a text string in the viewport, using the current font, direction, and size. outtext() function is a function which contains single parameter that is string.

It is a predefined function in "conio.h" (console input output header file) used to clear the console screen. It is a predefined function, by using this function we can clear the data from console (Monitor). Using of clrscr() is always optional but it should be place after variable or function declaration only. It is often used at the beginning of the program (mostly after variable declaration but not necessarily) so that the console is clear for our output.

To create a program in Graphics Mode, the first step would be to include the header file graphics.h. This file is required for Graphics programming. After this, the graphics have to be initialized. C Language supports 16 Bit's MS-DOS environment. Initializing the Graphics mode is to call various functions, one such is called initgraph. initgraph initializes the graphics system by loading a graphics driver from disk (or validating a registered driver), and putting the system into graphics mode. To start the graphics system, first call the initgraph function. initgraph loads the graphics driver and puts the system into graphics mode. You can tell initgraph to use a particular graphics driver and mode, or to autodetect the attached video adapter at run time and pick the corresponding driver. If you tell initgraph to autodetect, it calls detectgraph to select a graphics driver and mode. initgraph also resets all graphics settings to their defaults (current position, palette, color, viewport, and so on)

fillpoly() draws the outline of a polygon with number points in the current line style and color (just as drawpoly does), then fills the polygon using the current fill pattern and fill color. The header file graphics.h contains fillpoly() function which is implemented to draw and fill a polygon such as triangle, rectangle, pentagon, hexagon etc. So this function require same arguments as drawpoly().

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

setcolor() function is used to set the foreground color in graphics mode. After resetting the foreground color you will get the text or any other shape which you want to draw in that color. setcolor sets the current drawing color to color, which can range from 0 to getmaxcolor. The current drawing color is the value to which pixels are set when lines, and so on are drawn. The drawing colors shown below are available for the CGA and EGA, respectively.

The header file graphics.h contains closegraph() function which closes the graphics mode, deallocates all memory allocated by graphics system and restores the screen to the mode it was in before you called initgraph. closegraph() function is used to re-enter in the text mode and exit from the graphics mode. If you want to use both text mode and graphics mode in the program then you have to use both initgraph() and closegraph() function in the program. This function deallocates all memory allocated by graphics system and restores the screen to that mode in which it was presented before you called the initgraph() function.

An array is a collection of data items, all of the same type, accessed using a common name. A one-dimensional array is like a list; A two dimensional array is like a table; The C++ language places no limits on the number of dimensions in an array, though specific implementations may. Some texts refer to one-dimensional arrays as vectors, two-dimensional arrays as matrices, and use the general term arrays when the number of dimensions is unspecified or unimportant. (2D) array in C++ programming is also known as matrix. A matrix can be represented as a table of rows and columns. In C/C++, we can define multi dimensional arrays in simple words as array of arrays. Data in multi dimensional arrays are stored in tabular form (in row major order).

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Generate random number. Returns a pseudo-random integral number in the range between 0 and RAND_MAX. This number is generated by an algorithm that returns a sequence of apparently non-related numbers each time it is called. This algorithm uses a seed to generate the series, which should be initialized to some distinctive value using function srand. RAND_MAX is a constant defined in <cstdlib>. The rand() function in C++ is used to generate random numbers; it will generate the same number every time we run the program. In order to seed the rand() function, srand(unsigned int seed) is used. The srand() function sets the initial point for generating the pseudo-random numbers. The rand() function generates numbers randomly.

Break statement in C++ is a loop control statement defined using the break keyword. It is used to stop the current execution and proceed with the next one. When a compiler calls the break statement, it immediately stops the execution of the loop and transfers the control outside the loop and executes the other statements. In the case of a nested loop, break the statement stops the execution of the inner loop and proceeds with the outer loop. The statement itself says it breaks the loop. When the break statement is called in the program, it immediately terminates the loop and transfers the flow control to the statement mentioned outside the loop.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

The getch() is a predefined non-standard function that is defined in conio.h header file. It is mostly used by the Dev C/C++, MS- DOS's compilers like Turbo C to hold the screen until the user passes a single value to exit from the console screen. It can also be used to read a single byte character or string from the keyboard and then print. It does not hold any parameters. It has no buffer area to store the input character in a program. The getch() function does not accept any parameter from the user. It returns the ASCII value of the key pressed by the user as an input.

"Multiply two Signed numbers" using Booth's algorithm. Booth's multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed 'binary numbers' in two's complement