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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Games Code Examples

Snake And Ladder

/* Snake And Ladder */ #include<dos.h> #include<conio.h> #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> #include<process.h> #include<graphics.h> #include<iostream.h> enum whoplays{p1,p2}; int counter1=0,counter2=0,counter11=0,counter22=0; void graph(int,int,int); void sohaib(void); void ladder(int,int,int,int); void cp1(int,int); void cp2(int,int); void snake(int,int,int,int); whoplays setplayer(whoplays); class dice { private: int dice1; public: dice(); int rolldice(void); operator int() { return dice1/1; } }; void dice::dice() { dice1=0; } int dice::rolldice(void) { randomize(); dice1=rand()%6+1; return dice1; } class player1 { private: int a; public: player1(); returna(); reseta(int); minusa(int); operator int() { return a/1; } }; void player1::player1() { a=0; } int player1::returna() { return a; } int player1::reseta(int ra) { a+=ra; } int player1::minusa(int ma) { a-=ma; } class player2 { private: int b; public: player2(); returnb(); minusb(int); resetb(int); operator int() { return b/1; } }; void player2::player2() { b=0; } int player2::returnb() { return b; } int player2::resetb(int rb) { b+=rb; } int player2::minusb(int mb) { b-=mb; } //starting of main void main() { sohaib(); } //end of main void sohaib(void) { int l=VGA,k=VGAMED; initgraph(&l,&k,"e:\tc\bgi"); static int x=0; dice dice1; player1 obj1; player2 obj2; int one=0,two=0,y=0; y=setplayer(1); g:if(x==6) { if(y==0) { y=setplayer(0); } else if(y==1) { y=setplayer(1); } } else { if(y==0) { y=setplayer(1); } else if(y==1) { y=setplayer(0); } } x=int(dice1.rolldice()); one=int(obj1.returna()); two=int(obj2.returnb()); graph(y,one,two); if(x==6&&y==0) { counter11=1; } if(x==6&&y==1) { counter22=1; } if(y==0&&counter11==1) { counter1=1; } if(y==1&&counter22==1) { counter2=1; } if(y==0&&counter1>=1) { obj1.reseta(x); if(one==10) { obj1.reseta(27); cout<<endl<<"player1 you have moved to 37"; } if(one==55) { obj1.reseta(15); cout<<endl<<"player1 you have moved to 64"; } if(one==79) { obj1.reseta(10); cout<<endl<<"player1 you have moved to 89"; } if(one==99) { obj1.minusa(60); cout<<endl<<"alas! moved to 39"; } if(one==56) { obj1.minusa(30); cout<<endl<<"alas! moved to 26"; } if(one==77) { obj1.minusa(25); cout<<endl<<"alas! moved to 52"; } } if(y==1&&counter2>=1) { obj2.resetb(x); if(two==24) { obj2.resetb(27); cout<<endl<<"player2 you have moved to 51"; } if(two==43) { obj2.resetb(15); cout<<endl<<"player2 you have moved to 58"; } if(two==88) { obj2.resetb(10); cout<<endl<<"player2 you have moved to 98"; } if(two==28) { obj2.minusb(15); cout<<endl<<"alas! moved to 13"; } if(two==69) { obj2.minusb(30); cout<<endl<<"alas! moved to 39"; } if(two==99) { obj2.minusb(60); cout<<endl<<"alas! moved to 39"; } } if(one>=100) { cout<<" congratulations player 1 have won"; goto b; } if(two>=100) { cout<<" congratulations player 2 have won"; goto b; } if((one<101&&two<101)&&(one>=0&&two>=0)) { goto g; } b:getch(); } whoplays setplayer(whoplays p) { whoplays player=p; return player; } void graph(int y,int one,int two) { int a=VGA,b=VGAMED; initgraph(&a,&b,"e:\tc\bgi"); cleardevice(); int count=0,r=21; if(y==0) { rectangle(200,100,400,200); setfillstyle(1,BLUE); floodfill(201,101,WHITE); moveto(210,110); setcolor(GREEN); settextstyle(SCRIPT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,5); outtext("Player 2"); getch(); cleardevice(); } if(y==1) { rectangle(200,100,400,200); setfillstyle(1,RED); floodfill(201,101,WHITE); moveto(210,110); setcolor(YELLOW); settextstyle(SCRIPT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,5); outtext("Player 2"); getch(); cleardevice(); } setcolor(4); moveto(75,5); settextstyle(GOTHIC_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,5); outtext("SNAKE AND LADDER"); rectangle(65,8,535,53); setcolor(GREEN); rectangle(15,58,590,298); for(int e=73;e<590;e=e+58) { line(e,58,e,298); } for(int d=82;d<298;d=d+24) { line(15,d,590,d); } setcolor(RED); moveto(44,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("1"); moveto(102,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("2"); moveto(160,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("3"); moveto(218,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("4"); moveto(276,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("5"); moveto(334,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("6"); moveto(392,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("7"); moveto(450,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("8"); moveto(508,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("9"); moveto(566,286); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("10"); moveto(44,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("11"); moveto(102,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("12"); moveto(160,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("13"); moveto(218,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("14"); moveto(276,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("15"); moveto(334,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("16"); moveto(392,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("17"); moveto(450,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("18"); moveto(508,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("19"); moveto(566,262); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("20"); moveto(44,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("21"); moveto(102,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("22"); moveto(160,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("23"); moveto(218,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("24"); moveto(276,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("25"); moveto(334,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("26"); moveto(392,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("27"); moveto(450,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("28"); moveto(508,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("29"); moveto(566,238); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("30"); moveto(44,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("31"); moveto(102,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("32"); moveto(160,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("33"); moveto(218,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("34"); moveto(276,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("35"); moveto(334,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("36"); moveto(392,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("37"); moveto(450,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("38"); moveto(508,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("39"); moveto(566,214); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("40"); moveto(44,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("41"); moveto(102,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("42"); moveto(160,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("43"); moveto(218,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("44"); moveto(276,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("45"); moveto(334,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("46"); moveto(392,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("47"); moveto(450,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("48"); moveto(508,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("49"); moveto(566,190); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("50"); moveto(44,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("51"); moveto(102,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("52"); moveto(160,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("53"); moveto(218,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("54"); moveto(276,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("55"); moveto(334,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("56"); moveto(392,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("57"); moveto(450,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("58"); moveto(508,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("59"); moveto(566,166); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("60"); moveto(44,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("61"); moveto(102,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("62"); moveto(160,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("63"); moveto(218,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("64"); moveto(276,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("65"); moveto(334,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("66"); moveto(392,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("67"); moveto(450,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("68"); moveto(508,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("69"); moveto(566,142); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("70"); moveto(44,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("71"); moveto(102,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("72"); moveto(160,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("73"); moveto(218,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("74"); moveto(276,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("75"); moveto(334,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("76"); moveto(392,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("77"); moveto(450,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("78"); moveto(508,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("79"); moveto(566,118); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("80"); moveto(44,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("81"); moveto(102,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("82"); moveto(160,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("83"); moveto(218,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("84"); moveto(276,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("85"); moveto(334,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("86"); moveto(392,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("87"); moveto(450,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("88"); moveto(508,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("89"); moveto(566,94); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("90"); moveto(44,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("91"); moveto(102,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("92"); moveto(160,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("93"); moveto(218,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("94"); moveto(276,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("95"); moveto(334,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("96"); moveto(392,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("97"); moveto(450,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("98"); moveto(508,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("99"); moveto(558,70); settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,1); outtext("100"); settextstyle(SMALL_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,5); setcolor(GREEN); rectangle(363,300,590,349); setcolor(6); moveto(375,306); outtext("Dice -> "); moveto(375,317); outtext("Player 1 -> "); moveto(375,328); outtext("Player 2 -> "); setcolor(GREEN); rectangle(15,300,350,349); setcolor(YELLOW); moveto(19,302); outtext("Help : "); setcolor(7); settextstyle(SMALL_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,4); outtext("Just press any key, a number will appear before "); moveto(72,312); outtext("dice. The mark of player will automatically move"); moveto(19,322); outtext("to the accurate position. The player who will reach 100 "); moveto(19,332); outtext("will Win the game. "); ladder(392,214,566,286); ladder(218,142,276,166); //ladder(508,94,508,118); ladder(44,166,218,238); ladder(160,190,450,166); ladder(450,70,450,94); snake(508,70,556,238); snake(334,166,334,238); snake(392,118,102,166); snake(450,238,160,262); snake(508,142,508,214); cp1(515,310); moveto(520,307); outtext(" Player 1"); cp2(515,330); moveto(520,327); outtext(" Player 2"); if(one==1) { cp1(44,286); } if(one==2) { cp1(102,286); } if(one==3) { cp1(160,286); } if(one==4) { cp1(218,286); } if(one==5) { cp1(276,286); } if(one==6) { cp1(334,286); } if(one==7) { cp1(392,286); } if(one==8) { cp1(450,286); } if(one==9) { cp1(508,286); } if(one==10) { cp1(566,286); } if(one==11) { cp1(44,262); } if(one==12) { cp1(102,262); } if(one==13) { cp1(160,262); } if(one==14) { cp1(218,262); } if(one==15) { cp1(276,262); } if(one==16) { cp1(334,262); } if(one==17) { cp1(392,262); } if(one==18) { cp1(450,262); } if(one==19) { cp1(508,262); } if(one==20) { cp1(566,262); } if(one==21) { cp1(44,238); } if(one==22) { cp1(102,238); } if(one==23) { cp1(160,238); } if(one==24) { cp1(218,238); } if(one==25) { cp1(276,238); } if(one==26) { cp1(334,238); } if(one==27) { cp1(392,238); } if(one==28) { cp1(450,238); } if(one==29) { cp1(508,238); } if(one==30) { cp1(566,238); } if(one==31) { cp1(44,214); } if(one==32) { cp1(102,214); } if(one==33) { cp1(160,214); } if(one==34) { cp1(218,214); } if(one==35) { cp1(276,214); } if(one==36) { cp1(334,214); } if(one==37) { cp1(392,214); } if(one==38) { cp1(450,214); } if(one==39) { cp1(508,214); } if(one==40) { cp1(566,214); } if(one==41) { cp1(44,190); } if(one==42) { cp1(102,190); } if(one==43) { cp1(160,190); } if(one==44) { cp1(218,190); } if(one==45) { cp1(276,190); } if(one==46) { cp1(334,190); } if(one==47) { cp1(392,190); } if(one==48) { cp1(450,190); } if(one==49) { cp1(508,190); } if(one==50) { cp1(566,190); } if(one==51) { cp1(44,166); } if(one==52) { cp1(102,166); } if(one==53) { cp1(160,166); } if(one==54) { cp1(218,166); } if(one==55) { cp1(276,166); } if(one==56) { cp1(334,166); } if(one==57) { cp1(392,166); } if(one==58) { cp1(450,166); } if(one==59) { cp1(508,166); } if(one==60) { cp1(566,166); } if(one==61) { cp1(44,142); } if(one==62) { cp1(102,142); } if(one==63) { cp1(160,142); } if(one==64) { cp1(218,142); } if(one==65) { cp1(276,142); } if(one==66) { cp1(334,142); } if(one==67) { cp1(392,142); } if(one==68) { cp1(450,142); } if(one==69) { cp1(508,142); } if(one==70) { cp1(566,142); } if(one==71) { cp1(44,118); } if(one==72) { cp1(102,118); } if(one==73) { cp1(160,118); } if(one==74) { cp1(218,118); } if(one==75) { cp1(276,118); } if(one==76) { cp1(334,118); } if(one==77) { cp1(392,118); } if(one==78) { cp1(450,118); } if(one==79) { cp1(508,118); } if(one==80) { cp1(566,118); } if(one==81) { cp1(44,94); } if(one==82) { cp1(102,94); } if(one==83) { cp1(160,94); } if(one==84) { cp1(218,94); } if(one==85) { cp1(276,94); } if(one==86) { cp1(334,94); } if(one==87) { cp1(392,94); } if(one==88) { cp1(450,94); } if(one==89) { cp1(508,94); } if(one==90) { cp1(566,94); } if(one==91) { cp1(44,70); } if(one==92) { cp1(102,70); } if(one==93) { cp1(160,70); } if(one==70) { cp1(218,70); } if(one==95) { cp1(276,70); } if(one==96) { cp1(334,70); } if(one==97) { cp1(392,70); } if(one==98) { cp1(450,70); } if(one==99) { cp1(508,70); } if(one==100) { cp1(566,70); } if(two==1) { cp2(44,286); } if(two==2) { cp2(102,286); } if(two==3) { cp2(160,286); } if(two==4) { cp2(218,286); } if(two==5) { cp2(276,286); } if(two==6) { cp2(334,286); } if(two==7) { cp2(392,286); } if(two==8) { cp2(450,286); } if(two==9) { cp2(508,286); } if(two==10) { cp2(566,286); } if(two==11) { cp2(44,262); } if(two==12) { cp2(102,262); } if(two==13) { cp2(160,262); } if(two==14) { cp2(218,262); } if(two==15) { cp2(276,262); } if(two==16) { cp2(334,262); } if(two==17) { cp2(392,262); } if(two==18) { cp2(450,262); } if(two==19) { cp2(508,262); } if(two==20) { cp2(566,262); } if(two==21) { cp2(44,238); } if(two==22) { cp2(102,238); } if(two==23) { cp2(160,238); } if(two==24) { cp2(218,238); } if(two==25) { cp2(276,238); } if(two==26) { cp2(334,238); } if(two==27) { cp2(392,238); } if(two==28) { cp2(450,238); } if(two==29) { cp2(508,238); } if(two==30) { cp2(566,238); } if(two==31) { cp2(44,214); } if(two==32) { cp2(102,214); } if(two==33) { cp2(160,214); } if(two==34) { cp2(218,214); } if(two==35) { cp2(276,214); } if(two==36) { cp2(334,214); } if(two==37) { cp2(392,214); } if(two==38) { cp2(450,214); } if(two==39) { cp2(508,214); } if(two==40) { cp2(566,214); } if(two==41) { cp2(44,190); } if(two==42) { cp2(102,190); } if(two==43) { cp2(160,190); } if(two==44) { cp2(218,190); } if(two==45) { cp2(276,190); } if(two==46) { cp2(334,190); } if(two==47) { cp2(392,190); } if(two==48) { cp2(450,190); } if(two==49) { cp2(508,190); } if(two==50) { cp2(566,190); } if(two==51) { cp2(44,166); } if(two==52) { cp2(102,166); } if(two==53) { cp2(160,166); } if(two==54) { cp2(218,166); } if(two==55) { cp2(276,166); } if(two==56) { cp2(334,166); } if(two==57) { cp2(392,166); } if(two==58) { cp2(450,166); } if(two==59) { cp2(508,166); } if(two==60) { cp2(566,166); } if(two==61) { cp2(44,142); } if(two==62) { cp2(102,142); } if(two==63) { cp2(160,142); } if(two==64) { cp2(218,142); } if(two==65) { cp2(276,142); } if(two==66) { cp2(334,142); } if(two==67) { cp2(392,142); } if(two==68) { cp2(450,142); } if(two==69) { cp2(508,142); } if(two==70) { cp2(566,142); } if(two==71) { cp2(44,118); } if(two==72) { cp2(102,118); } if(two==73) { cp2(160,118); } if(two==74) { cp2(218,118); } if(two==75) { cp2(276,118); } if(two==76) { cp2(334,118); } if(two==77) { cp2(392,118); } if(two==78) { cp2(450,118); } if(two==79) { cp2(508,118); } if(two==80) { cp2(566,118); } if(two==81) { cp2(44,94); } if(two==82) { cp2(102,94); } if(two==83) { cp2(160,94); } if(two==84) { cp2(218,94); } if(two==85) { cp2(276,94); } if(two==86) { cp2(334,94); } if(two==87) { cp2(392,94); } if(two==88) { cp2(450,94); } if(two==89) { cp2(508,94); } if(two==90) { cp2(566,94); } if(two==91) { cp2(44,70); } if(two==92) { cp2(102,70); } if(two==93) { cp2(160,70); } if(two==70) { cp2(218,70); } if(two==95) { cp2(276,70); } if(two==96) { cp2(334,70); } if(two==97) { cp2(392,70); } if(two==98) { cp2(450,70); } if(two==99) { cp2(508,70); } if(two==100) { cp2(566,70); } getch(); closegraph(); } void ladder(int s1,int s2,int s3,int s4) { setcolor(WHITE); setlinestyle(1,10,3); line(s1,s2,s3,s4); line(s1,s2,s1,s2+10); line(s1,s2,s1+17,s2); //circle(s1,s2,3); } void cp1(int xx,int yy) { setcolor(7); circle(xx,yy,10); setfillstyle(1,9); floodfill(xx,yy,7); } void cp2(int xx,int yy) { setcolor(7); circle(xx,yy,10); setfillstyle(1,4); floodfill(xx,yy,7); } void snake(int s1,int s2,int s3,int s4) { setcolor(YELLOW); setlinestyle(1,10,3); line(s1,s2,s3,s4); circle(s1,s2,4); }

The header file graphics.h contains cleardevice() function. cleardevice() is a function which is used to clear the screen by filling the whole screen with the current background color. It means that cleardevice() function is used to clear the whole screen with the current background color and it also sets the current position to (0,0). Both clrscr() and cleardevice() functions are used to clear the screen but clrscr() is used in text mode and cleardevice function is used in the graphics mode.

As the name already suggests, these operators help in assigning values to variables. These operators help us in allocating a particular value to the operands. The main simple assignment operator is '='. We have to be sure that both the left and right sides of the operator must have the same data type. We have different levels of operators. Assignment operators are used to assign the value, variable and function to another variable. Assignment operators in C are some of the C Programming Operator, which are useful to assign the values to the declared variables. Let's discuss the various types of the assignment operators such as =, +=, -=, /=, *= and %=. The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language:

Settextstyle function is used to change the way in which text appears, using it we can modify the size of text, change direction of text and change the font of text. settextstyle sets the text font, the direction in which text is displayed, and the size of the characters. A call to settextstyle affects all text output by outtext and outtextxy.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

The getch() is a predefined non-standard function that is defined in conio.h header file. It is mostly used by the Dev C/C++, MS- DOS's compilers like Turbo C to hold the screen until the user passes a single value to exit from the console screen. It can also be used to read a single byte character or string from the keyboard and then print. It does not hold any parameters. It has no buffer area to store the input character in a program. The getch() function does not accept any parameter from the user. It returns the ASCII value of the key pressed by the user as an input.

outtext() function is used to display the string at the current position on the screen. This function displays the given string in the graphics mode. It uses the settextstyle() function in order to set the font style of the string and moveto() function in order to change current position. outtext displays a text string in the viewport, using the current font, direction, and size. outtext() function is a function which contains single parameter that is string.

Generate random number. Returns a pseudo-random integral number in the range between 0 and RAND_MAX. This number is generated by an algorithm that returns a sequence of apparently non-related numbers each time it is called. This algorithm uses a seed to generate the series, which should be initialized to some distinctive value using function srand. RAND_MAX is a constant defined in <cstdlib>. The rand() function in C++ is used to generate random numbers; it will generate the same number every time we run the program. In order to seed the rand() function, srand(unsigned int seed) is used. The srand() function sets the initial point for generating the pseudo-random numbers. The rand() function generates numbers randomly.

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

Static is a keyword in C++ used to give special characteristics to an element. Static elements are allocated storage only once in a program lifetime in static storage area. And they have a scope till the program lifetime. In C++, static is a keyword or modifier that belongs to the type not instance. So instance is not required to access the static members. In C++, static can be field, method, constructor, class, properties, operator and event. Advantage of C++ static keyword: Memory efficient. Now we don't need to create instance for accessing the static members, so it saves memory. Moreover, it belongs to the type, so it will not get memory each time when instance is created.

setcolor() function is used to set the foreground color in graphics mode. After resetting the foreground color you will get the text or any other shape which you want to draw in that color. setcolor sets the current drawing color to color, which can range from 0 to getmaxcolor. The current drawing color is the value to which pixels are set when lines, and so on are drawn. The drawing colors shown below are available for the CGA and EGA, respectively.

This library function is declared in graphics.h and used to draw a circle; it takes centre point coordinates and radius. Circle function is used to draw a circle with center (x,y) and third parameter specifies the radius of the circle. The code given below draws a circle. Where, (x, y) is center of the circle. 'radius' is the Radius of the circle.

The header file graphics.h contains line() function which is used to draw a line from a point(x1, y1) to point(x2, y2) i.e. (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are end points of the line. The function line() draws a line on the graphics screen between two specified points. So this function requires four parameters namely x1, y1, x2, and y2 to represent two points. This function draws a line from (x1, y1) coordinates to (x2, y2) coordinates on the graphics screen.

The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.

setlinestyle() is a function which is used to draw the line of different- different styles. Turbo C compiler provides five line styles that are solid, dotted, center, dashed and user defined. These all five line styles are already enumerated in graphics.h header file as given below: setlinestyle() function contains three parameters type, pattern and thickness. First parameter contains the type of line like solid, dashed or dotted etc. Second parameter is applicable only when type of line is user defined. Third parameter specifies the thickness of the line it takes values 1 (line thickness of one pixel (normal)) or 3 (line thickness of three pixels (thick).

To create a program in Graphics Mode, the first step would be to include the header file graphics.h. This file is required for Graphics programming. After this, the graphics have to be initialized. C Language supports 16 Bit's MS-DOS environment. Initializing the Graphics mode is to call various functions, one such is called initgraph. initgraph initializes the graphics system by loading a graphics driver from disk (or validating a registered driver), and putting the system into graphics mode. To start the graphics system, first call the initgraph function. initgraph loads the graphics driver and puts the system into graphics mode. You can tell initgraph to use a particular graphics driver and mode, or to autodetect the attached video adapter at run time and pick the corresponding driver. If you tell initgraph to autodetect, it calls detectgraph to select a graphics driver and mode. initgraph also resets all graphics settings to their defaults (current position, palette, color, viewport, and so on)

The header file graphics.h contains closegraph() function which closes the graphics mode, deallocates all memory allocated by graphics system and restores the screen to the mode it was in before you called initgraph. closegraph() function is used to re-enter in the text mode and exit from the graphics mode. If you want to use both text mode and graphics mode in the program then you have to use both initgraph() and closegraph() function in the program. This function deallocates all memory allocated by graphics system and restores the screen to that mode in which it was presented before you called the initgraph() function.

In C++, constructor is a special method which is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the data members of new object generally. The constructor in C++ has the same name as class or structure. Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object. • Default Constructor: A constructor which has no argument is known as default constructor. It is invoked at the time of creating object.

rectangle() is used to draw a rectangle. Coordinates of left top and right bottom corner are required to draw the rectangle. left specifies the X-coordinate of top left corner, top specifies the Y-coordinate of top left corner, right specifies the X-coordinate of right bottom corner, bottom specifies the Y-coordinate of right bottom corner.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

Enumeration is a user defined datatype in C/C++ language. It is used to assign names to the integral constants which makes a program easy to read and maintain. The keyword "enum" is used to declare an enumeration. It can be used for days of the week (SUNDAY, MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY, FRIDAY and SATURDAY) , directions (NORTH, SOUTH, EAST and WEST) etc. The C++ enum constants are static and final implicitly. C++ Enums can be thought of as classes that have fixed set of constants.

In C++, goto is a jump statement and sometimes also referred as unconditional jump statement. It can be used to jump from goto to a labeled statement within the same function. The target label must be within the same file and context. Please note that the use of goto statement is highly discouraged in any programming language because it makes difficult to trace the control flow of a program, making hard to understand and modify the program.

A predefined object of the class called iostream class is used to insert the new line characters while flushing the stream is called endl in C++. This endl is similar to \n which performs the functionality of inserting new line characters but it does not flush the stream whereas endl does the job of inserting the new line characters while flushing the stream. Hence the statement cout<<endl; will be equal to the statement cout<< '\n' << flush; meaning the new line character used along with flush explicitly becomes equivalent to the endl statement in C++.

floodfill function is used to fill an enclosed area. Current fill pattern and fill color is used to fill the area.(x, y) is any point on the screen if (x,y) lies inside the area then inside will be filled otherwise outside will be filled, border specifies the color of boundary of area. To change fill pattern and fill color use setfillstyle.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

The header file graphics.h contains setfillstyle() function which sets the current fill pattern and fill color. Current fill pattern and fill color is used to fill the area. setfillstyle sets the current fill pattern and fill color. To set a user-defined fill pattern, do not give a pattern of 12 (USER_FILL) to setfillstyle; instead, call setfillpattern.

Function moves the current position(cp) to (x,y). The header file graphics.h contains moveto() function which changes the current position to (x, y). Means if you want to move a point from the current position to a new position then you can use this function. outtext is the function used to display the given string on graphics mode. It uses the font style set by settextstyle and the current position. The current position can be changed with moveto function. Alternatively you can use outtextxy function which takes xpos, ypos and string for displaying at a particular location. outtextxy does the work of both moveto and outtext functions.

Using Fibonacci numbers we calculate mid of data array to search the data item. 'Calculate' the mid of the array. Divide the array into two subarray. 'Compare the item' by mid element

This program sorts the 10 strings (entered by the user) in Lexicographical order (dictionary order). This program takes 10 words from the user and sort them in 'Lexicographical Order'

C++ Language code to compute the area of a triangle using determinants. The 'plus/minus' in this case is meant to take whichever sign is needed so the 'answer is positive'. Do not say