# C++ Programming Code Examples

## Learn C++ Language

### Algorithm Library random_shuffle() Function in C++ Programming Language

**Algorithm Library random_shuffle() Function in C++**

**Syntax for Algorithm random_shuffle() Function in C++**

#include <algorithm>
//generator by default (1)
template <class RandomAccessIterator>
void random_shuffle (RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
//specific generator (2)
template <class RandomAccessIterator, class RandomNumberGenerator>
void random_shuffle (RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
RandomNumberGenerator&& gen);

first, last

Random-access iterators to the initial and final positions of the sequence to be shuffled. The range used is [first,last), which contains all the elements between first and last, including the element pointed by first but not the element pointed by last.
gen

Unary function taking one argument and returning a value, both convertible to/from the appropriate difference type used by the iterators. The function shall return a non-negative value less than its argument.
This can either be a function pointer or a function object.
RandomAccessIterator shall point to a type for which swap is defined and swaps the value of its arguments.
This function does not return any value.
Complexity

Linear in the distance between first and last minus one: Obtains random values and swaps elements.
Data races

The objects in the range [first,last) are modified.
Exceptions

Throws if any of the random number generations, the element swaps or the operations on iterators throws.
Note that invalid arguments cause undefined behavior.
/* random_shuffle() function swaps the value of each element with some other randomly picked element. When provided, the function gen determines which element is picked in every case. Otherwise, the function uses some unspecified source of randomness. */
/* reorder the elements of a range by putting them at random places by random_shuffle() function code example. */
// CPP program code example illustrating the use of random_shuffle
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
// random generator function
int randomfunc(int j)
{
return rand() % j;
}
int main()
{
srand(unsigned(time(0)));
vector<int> arr;
// set some values:
for (int j = 1; j < 10; ++j)
// 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
arr.push_back(j);
// using built-in random generator
random_shuffle(arr.begin(), arr.end());
// using randomfunc
random_shuffle(arr.begin(), arr.end(), randomfunc);
// print out content:
cout << "arr contains:";
for (vector<int>::iterator i = arr.begin(); i != arr.end(); ++i)
cout << ' ' << *i;
cout << endl;
return 0;
}

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