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String Library end() Function in C++ Programming Language

String Library end() Function in C++
Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator pointing to the past-the-end character of the string. The past-the-end character is a theoretical character that would follow the last character in the string. It shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with string::begin to specify a range including all the characters in the string. If the object is an empty string, this function returns the same as string::begin.
Syntax for String end() Function in C++
#include <string> iterator end() noexcept; const_iterator end() const noexcept;
This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the past-the-end of the string. If the string object is const-qualified, the function returns a const_iterator. Otherwise, it returns an iterator. Member types iterator and const_iterator are random access iterator types (pointing to a character and to a const character, respectively).
Unspecified, but generally constant
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
The object is accessed (neither the const nor the non-const versions modify it). The iterator returned can be used to access or modify characters. Concurrently accessing or modifying different characters is safe.
Exception safety
No-throw guarantee: this member function never throws exceptions. The copy construction or assignment of the returned iterator is also guaranteed to never throw.
/* returns the iterator pointing to the past-the-last character of the string by string::end function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main (){ string str = "Learn C++"; string::iterator it; it = str.end(); it--; cout<<*it<<" "; it--; cout<<*it<<" "; it--; cout<<*it<<" "; return 0; }

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