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Program to Find Path Between Two Nodes in a Graph

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/* Program to Find Path Between Two Nodes in a Graph This is a C++ Program to check and find if the path between two nodes exists. By running DFS on given graph we can find out whether path exists between two nodes. */ #include <iostream> #include <list> using namespace std; // This class represents a directed graph using adjacency list representation class Graph { int V; // No. of vertices list<int> *adj; // Pointer to an array containing adjacency lists public: Graph(int V); // Constructor void addEdge(int v, int w); // function to add an edge to graph bool isReachable(int s, int d); // returns true if there is a path from s to d }; Graph::Graph(int V) { this->V = V; adj = new list<int> [V]; } void Graph::addEdge(int v, int w) { adj[v].push_back(w); // Add w to v's list. } // A BFS based function to check whether d is reachable from s. bool Graph::isReachable(int s, int d) { // Base case if (s == d) return true; // Mark all the vertices as not visited bool *visited = new bool[V]; for (int i = 0; i < V; i++) visited[i] = false; // Create a queue for BFS list<int> queue; // Mark the current node as visited and enqueue it visited[s] = true; queue.push_back(s); // it will be used to get all adjacent vertices of a vertex list<int>::iterator i; while (!queue.empty()) { // Dequeue a vertex from queue and print it s = queue.front(); queue.pop_front(); // Get all adjacent vertices of the dequeued vertex s // If a adjacent has not been visited, then mark it visited // and enqueue it for (i = adj[s].begin(); i != adj[s].end(); ++i) { // If this adjacent node is the destination node, then return true if (*i == d) return true; // Else, continue to do BFS if (!visited[*i]) { visited[*i] = true; queue.push_back(*i); } } } return false; } // Driver program to test methods of graph class int main() { // Create a graph given in the above diagram Graph g(4); g.addEdge(0, 1); g.addEdge(0, 2); g.addEdge(1, 2); g.addEdge(2, 0); g.addEdge(2, 3); g.addEdge(3, 3); cout << "Enter the source and destination vertices: (0-3)"; int u, v; cin >> u >> v; if (g.isReachable(u, v)) cout << "\nThere is a path from " << u << " to " << v; else cout << "\nThere is no path from " << u << " to " << v; int temp; temp = u; u = v; v = temp; if (g.isReachable(u, v)) cout << "\nThere is a path from " << u << " to " << v; else cout << "\nThere is no path from " << u << " to " << v; return 0; }

The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C++ programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number. C++ array is beneficial if you have to store similar elements. For example, if we want to store the marks of a student in 6 subjects, then we don't need to define different variables for the marks in the different subject. Instead of that, we can define an array which can store the marks in each subject at the contiguous memory locations.

Iterators are just like pointers used to access the container elements. Iterators are one of the four pillars of the Standard Template Library or STL in C++. An iterator is used to point to the memory address of the STL container classes. For better understanding, you can relate them with a pointer, to some extent. Iterators act as a bridge that connects algorithms to STL containers and allows the modifications of the data present inside the container. They allow you to iterate over the container, access and assign the values, and run different operators over them, to get the desired result. • Iterators are used to traverse from one element to another element, a process is known as iterating through the container. • The main advantage of an iterator is to provide a common interface for all the containers type. • Iterators make the algorithm independent of the type of the container used.

Test whether container is empty. Returns whether the list container is empty (i.e. whether its size is 0). The C++ list::empty function is used to check whether the list is empty or not. It returns true if the size of the list is zero, else returns false. This function does not modify the container in any way. To clear the content of a list container, see list::clear. No parameter is passed to the function. Function returns true if the container size is 0, false otherwise.

Access first element. Returns a reference to the first element in the list container. The C++ list::front function returns a reference to the first element of the list. Please note that, Unlike the list::begin function, which returns the iterator pointing to the first element, it returns the a direct reference to the same element of the list. Unlike member list::begin, which returns an iterator to this same element, this function returns a direct reference. Calling this function on an empty container causes undefined behavior.

Add element at the end. Adds a new element at the end of the list container, after its current last element. The content of val is copied (or moved) to the new element. This effectively increases the container size by one. The list:push_back() function in C++ STL is used to add a new element to an existing list container. It takes the element to be added as a parameter and adds it to the list container. This function accepts a single parameter which is mandatory value. This refers to the element needed to be added to the list, list_name. This function does not return any value.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

Return iterator to beginning. Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the list container. Notice that, unlike member list::front, which returns a reference to the first element, this function returns a bidirectional iterator pointing to it. If the container is empty, the returned iterator value shall not be dereferenced. begin() function is used to return an iterator pointing to the first element of the list container. It is different from the front() function because the front function returns a reference to the first element of the container but begin() function returns a bidirectional iterator to the first element of the container. This function does not accept any parameter. Function returns an iterator to the beginning of the sequence container.

Delete first element. Removes the first element in the list container, effectively reducing its size by one. pop_front() is an inbuilt function in C++ STL which is declared in header file. pop_front() is used to pop (delete) the element from the beginning of the list container. The function deletes the first element of the list container, means the second element of the container becomes the first element and the first element from the container is removed from the container. This function decreases the size of the container by 1. This destroys the removed element. pop_front() is an inbuilt function in C++ STL which is declared in header file. pop_front() is used to pop (delete) the element from the beginning of the list container. The function deletes the first element of the list container, means the second element of the container becomes the first element and the first element from the container is removed from the container. This function decreases the size of the container by 1.

The pointer in C++ language is a variable, it is also known as locator or indicator that points to an address of a value. In C++, a pointer refers to a variable that holds the address of another variable. Like regular variables, pointers have a data type. For example, a pointer of type integer can hold the address of a variable of type integer. A pointer of character type can hold the address of a variable of character type. You should see a pointer as a symbolic representation of a memory address. With pointers, programs can simulate call-by-reference. They can also create and manipulate dynamic data structures. In C++, a pointer variable refers to a variable pointing to a specific address in a memory pointed by another variable.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

In while loop, condition is evaluated first and if it returns true then the statements inside while loop execute, this happens repeatedly until the condition returns false. When condition returns false, the control comes out of loop and jumps to the next statement in the program after while loop. The important point to note when using while loop is that we need to use increment or decrement statement inside while loop so that the loop variable gets changed on each iteration, and at some point condition returns false. This way we can end the execution of while loop otherwise the loop would execute indefinitely. A while loop that never stops is said to be the infinite while loop, when we give the condition in such a way so that it never returns false, then the loops becomes infinite and repeats itself indefinitely.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Every object in C++ has access to its own address through an important pointer called this pointer. The this pointer is an implicit parameter to all member functions. Therefore, inside a member function, this may be used to refer to the invoking object. Friend functions do not have a this pointer, because friends are not members of a class. Only member functions have a this pointer. In C++ programming, this is a keyword that refers to the current instance of the class. There can be 3 main usage of this keyword in C++: • It can be used to pass current object as a parameter to another method. • It can be used to refer current class instance variable. • It can be used to declare indexers. To understand 'this' pointer, it is important to know how objects look at functions and data members of a class.

List is a popularly used sequence container. Container is an object that holds data of same type. List container is implemented as doubly linked-list, hence it provides bidirectional sequential access to it's data. List doesn't provide fast random access, it only supports sequential access in both directions. List allows insertion and deletion operation anywhere within a sequence in constant time. Elements of list can be scattered in different chunks of memory. Container stores necessary information to allow sequential access to it's data. Lists can shrink or expand as needed from both ends at run time. The storage requirement is fulfilled automatically by internal allocator. Zero sized lists are also valid. In that case list.begin() and list.end() points to same location. But behavior of calling front() or back() is undefined. To define the std::list, we have to import the <list> header file.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Return iterator to end. Returns an iterator referring to the past-the-end element in the list container. The past-the-end element is the theoretical element that would follow the last element in the list container. It does not point to any element, and thus shall not be dereferenced. Because the ranges used by functions of the standard library do not include the element pointed by their closing iterator, this function is often used in combination with list::begin to specify a range including all the elements in the container. If the container is empty, this function returns the same as list::begin. This function does not accept any parameter.

In C++, constructor is a special method which is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the data members of new object generally. The constructor in C++ has the same name as class or structure. Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object. • Default Constructor: A constructor which has no argument is known as default constructor. It is invoked at the time of creating object.

Arithmetic Operator is used to performing mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, modulus, etc., on the given operands. For example: 6 + 3 = 9, 5 - 3 = 2, 3 * 4 = 12, etc. are the examples of arithmetic operators. Let's discuss the different types of Arithmetic Operators in the C programming. Plus Operator is a simple Plus (+) Operator used to add two given operands. We can use Plus Operator with different data types such as integer, float, long, double, enumerated and string type data to add the given operand. The minus operator is denoted by the minus (-) symbol. It is used to return the subtraction of the first number from the second number. The data type of the given number can be different types, such as int, float, double, long double, etc., in the programing language.

The cin object is used to accept input from the standard input device i.e. keyboard. It is defined in the iostream header file. C++ cin statement is the instance of the class istream and is used to read input from the standard input device which is usually a keyboard. The extraction operator(>>) is used along with the object cin for reading inputs. The extraction operator extracts the data from the object cin which is entered using the keyboard. The "c" in cin refers to "character" and "in" means "input". Hence cin means "character input". The cin object is used along with the extraction operator >> in order to receive a stream of characters.

Allocate storage space. Default allocation functions (single-object form). A new operator is used to create the object while a delete operator is used to delete the object. When the object is created by using the new operator, then the object will exist until we explicitly use the delete operator to delete the object. Therefore, we can say that the lifetime of the object is not related to the block structure of the program.

Notice that we have not returned any values from the 'cyclicSwap()' function. When these variables are swapped in "Cyclic Order" in the 'cyclicSwap()' function, variables a, b and c in

This is a C++ Program to implement nearest neighbour algorithm to 'solve TSP'. This C++ program implements the travelling salesman problem which computes the minimum cost

This is a C++ Program to find the "cliques" of size k in a a graph. An "undirected graph" is formed by a finite set of vertices and a set of unordered pairs of vertices, which are called