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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Miscellaneous Code Examples

A password program with a small

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/* A password program with a small */ #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); cout<<"Enter password: \n"; restart:int x[100],x1[100],i,j=0,k=0,l; for(i=0;i<=100;i++) { shahab:l=getch(); if(((l>=48)&&(l<=126))||(l==8)||(l==13))x[i]=l; else goto shahab; if(x[i]==13)break; else if(x[i]==8) { gotoxy(1,2); clreol(); for(i=0;i<100;i++) x[i]='\0'; goto restart; } else { cout<<"*"; k++; } } cout<<"\nRe enter password: \n"; for(i=0;i<=k;i++) { x1[i]=getche(); if(x1[i]==13)break; } for(i=0;i<=k;i++) if(x[i]!=x1[i])j++; if(j==0)cout<<"\nPasswords match!!\n"; else cout<<"\nPasswords do not match!!\n"; getch(); }

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

The if...else statement executes two different codes depending upon whether the test expression is true or false. Sometimes, a choice has to be made from more than 2 possibilities. The if...else ladder allows you to check between multiple test expressions and execute different statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

Break statement in C++ is a loop control statement defined using the break keyword. It is used to stop the current execution and proceed with the next one. When a compiler calls the break statement, it immediately stops the execution of the loop and transfers the control outside the loop and executes the other statements. In the case of a nested loop, break the statement stops the execution of the inner loop and proceeds with the outer loop. The statement itself says it breaks the loop. When the break statement is called in the program, it immediately terminates the loop and transfers the flow control to the statement mentioned outside the loop.

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop. A loop inside another loop is called a nested loop. The depth of nested loop depends on the complexity of a problem. We can have any number of nested loops as required. Consider a nested loop where the outer loop runs n times and consists of another loop inside it. The inner loop runs m times. Then, the total number of times the inner loop runs during the program execution is n*m.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

In C++, goto is a jump statement and sometimes also referred as unconditional jump statement. It can be used to jump from goto to a labeled statement within the same function. The target label must be within the same file and context. Please note that the use of goto statement is highly discouraged in any programming language because it makes difficult to trace the control flow of a program, making hard to understand and modify the program.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

It is a predefined function in "conio.h" (console input output header file) used to clear the console screen. It is a predefined function, by using this function we can clear the data from console (Monitor). Using of clrscr() is always optional but it should be place after variable or function declaration only. It is often used at the beginning of the program (mostly after variable declaration but not necessarily) so that the console is clear for our output.

Logical Operators are used to compare and connect two or more expressions or variables, such that the value of the expression is completely dependent on the original expression or value or variable. We use logical operators to check whether an expression is true or false. If the expression is true, it returns 1 whereas if the expression is false, it returns 0. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0:

This function waits for any character input from keyboard. And, it will also echo the input character on to the output screen. The getch() function is very useful if you want to read a character input from the keyboard. Like getch(), getche() is also character input functions. It is unformatted input function meaning it does not allow user to read input in their format. Difference between getch() and getche() is that getche() echoes pressed character. getche() also returns character pressed like getch(). It is also defined in header file conio.h.

Clears end line in text window in text mode. The word "clreol" is the short of clear end of line. The Clreol Function is used to clear a line from the currunt cursor position up to the end of line. It clears all characters from the cursor position, the other text printed on the screen is not cleared. Clreol clears all characters from the cursor position to the end of the line within the current text window , without moving the cursor. It does not return anything. Lines below it remains as it is. Line below are not shifted up.

Positions cursor in text window. The gotoxy() function places the cursor at the desired location on the screen. This means it is possible to change the cursor location on the screen using the gotoxy() function. It is basically used to print text wherever the cursor is moved. If the coordinates are in any way invalid the call to gotoxy is ignored. Neither argument to gotoxy can be zero.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

The getch() is a predefined non-standard function that is defined in conio.h header file. It is mostly used by the Dev C/C++, MS- DOS's compilers like Turbo C to hold the screen until the user passes a single value to exit from the console screen. It can also be used to read a single byte character or string from the keyboard and then print. It does not hold any parameters. It has no buffer area to store the input character in a program. The getch() function does not accept any parameter from the user. It returns the ASCII value of the key pressed by the user as an input.

In mathematics, the 'Euclidean' algorithm, or Euclid's algorithm, is a method for computing the 'greatest common divisor' of two (usually positive) integers, also known as the greatest

You enter number size then ask to enter the numbers of that size. To calculate arithmetic 'mean of all numbers', first perform addition of all the numbers, and then make a variable

Operators declared on the type list. Reading a list from input. Writing a list on the output. Gets a list and returns its length. Getting an element and returns its positon in the list. If

This algorithm represents a given graph using 'Adjacency List'. This method of representing graphs isn't efficient. The time complexity of this algorithm is O(v*e). Print the 'adjacency'

In this, Insert item x into the 'priority queue', maintaining heap order. Return a pointer to the node containing the new item. Find the 'smallest' item in the priority queue. Return