 # C++ Programming Code Examples

## C++ > Recursion Code Examples

### C++ program to Calculate Factorial of a Number Using Recursion

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/* C++ program to Calculate Factorial of a Number Using Recursion Example to find factorial of a non-negative integer (entered by the user) using recursion. This program takes a positive integer from user and calculates the factorial of that number. Suppose, user enters 6 then, Factorial will be equal to 1*2*3*4*5*6 = 720 You'll learn to find the factorial of a number using a recursive function in this example. In the above program, suppose the user inputs a number 6. The number is passed to the factorial() function. In this function, 6 is multiplied to the factorial of (6 - 1 = 5). For this, the number 5 is passed again to the factorial() function. Likewise in the next iteration, 5 is multiplied to the factorial of (5 - 1 = 4). And, 4 is passed to the factorial() function. This continues until the value reaches 1 and the function returns 1. Now, each function returns the value back to compute 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 = 720, which is returned to the main() function. */ #include<iostream> using namespace std; int factorial(int n); int main() { int n; cout << "Enter a positive integer: "; cin >> n; cout << "Factorial of " << n << " = " << factorial(n); return 0; } int factorial(int n) { if(n > 1) return n * factorial(n - 1); else return 1; }

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

A return statement ends the processing of the current function and returns control to the caller of the function. A value-returning function should include a return statement, containing an expression. If an expression is not given on a return statement in a function declared with a non-void return type, the compiler issues an error message. If the data type of the expression is different from the function return type, conversion of the return value takes place as if the value of the expression were assigned to an object with the same function return type.

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

The cin object is used to accept input from the standard input device i.e. keyboard. It is defined in the iostream header file. C++ cin statement is the instance of the class istream and is used to read input from the standard input device which is usually a keyboard. The extraction operator(>>) is used along with the object cin for reading inputs. The extraction operator extracts the data from the object cin which is entered using the keyboard. The "c" in cin refers to "character" and "in" means "input". Hence cin means "character input". The cin object is used along with the extraction operator >> in order to receive a stream of characters.

A relational operator is used to check the relationship between two operands. C++ Relational Operators are used to relate or compare given operands. Relational operations are like checking if two operands are equal or not equal, greater or lesser, etc. Relational Operators are also called Comparison Operators.

Consider a situation, when we have two persons with the same name, jhon, in the same class. Whenever we need to differentiate them definitely we would have to use some additional information along with their name, like either the area, if they live in different area or their mother's or father's name, etc. Same situation can arise in your C++ applications. For example, you might be writing some code that has a function called xyz() and there is another library available which is also having same function xyz(). Now the compiler has no way of knowing which version of xyz() function you are referring to within your code.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

To "convert temperature" from centigrade to Fahrenheit in the C++, you have to ask to the user to enter the temperature in "centigrade" to convert it into Fahrenheit (using fah = (1.8

The "goto statement" is used for transferring the control of a program to a given label. The syntax of goto statement looks like this: In a C++ program, we have any "number of goto"