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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Strings Code Examples

C++ program to concatenate two strings

/* C++ program to concatenate two strings Combined two string or Concatenate two string means add both string with each other, we can perform this operation using library function or without library function. For example if first string is john and second string is porter then after combined these string output will be johnporter. */ #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char *ch1="C++ Programming Language"; char *ch2="Happy Codings :)"; char *ptr; clrscr(); cout<<"1 st String: "<<ch1; cout<<"\n 2 nd String: "<<ch2; strcat(ch1,ch2); cout<<"\nCombined string is: "<<ch1; getch(); }

Concatenate strings. The strcat() function in C++ appends a copy of a string to the end of another string. It is defined in <cstring> header file. Appends a copy of the source string to the destination string. The terminating null character in destination is overwritten by the first character of source, and a null-character is included at the end of the new string formed by the concatenation of both in destination. destination and source shall not overlap. The strcat() function takes two arguments: destination and source. This function appends a copy of the character string pointed to by source to the end of string pointed to by destination. The null terminating character at the end of destination is replaced by the first character of source and the resulting character is also null terminated.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Strings are objects that represent sequences of characters. The standard string class provides support for such objects with an interface similar to that of a standard container of bytes, but adding features specifically designed to operate with strings of single-byte characters. The string class is an instantiation of the basic_string class template that uses char (i.e., bytes) as its character type, with its default char_traits and allocator types. Note that this class handles bytes independently of the encoding used: If used to handle sequences of multi-byte or variable-length characters (such as UTF-8), all members of this class (such as length or size), as well as its iterators, will still operate in terms of bytes (not actual encoded characters).

It is a predefined function in "conio.h" (console input output header file) used to clear the console screen. It is a predefined function, by using this function we can clear the data from console (Monitor). Using of clrscr() is always optional but it should be place after variable or function declaration only. It is often used at the beginning of the program (mostly after variable declaration but not necessarily) so that the console is clear for our output.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

The getch() is a predefined non-standard function that is defined in conio.h header file. It is mostly used by the Dev C/C++, MS- DOS's compilers like Turbo C to hold the screen until the user passes a single value to exit from the console screen. It can also be used to read a single byte character or string from the keyboard and then print. It does not hold any parameters. It has no buffer area to store the input character in a program. The getch() function does not accept any parameter from the user. It returns the ASCII value of the key pressed by the user as an input.

The cout is a predefined object of ostream class. It is connected with the standard output device, which is usually a display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with stream insertion operator (<<) to display the output on a console. On most program environments, the standard output by default is the screen, and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. The "c" in cout refers to "character" and "out" means "output". Hence cout means "character output". The cout object is used along with the insertion operator << in order to display a stream of characters.

To write a "Multiline Comment" you have to write "/*" at the start of the Comment. After this you can write as many number of lines of description. When you are done with writing