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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Strings Code Examples

C++ Program to Perform Naive String Matching

/* C++ Program to Perform Naive String Matching This is a C++ Program to perform Naive String matching algorithm. In computer science, string searching algorithms, sometimes called string matching algorithms, are an important class of string algorithms that try to find a place where one or several strings (also called patterns) are found within a larger string or text. */ #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> void search(char *pat, char *txt) { int M = strlen(pat); int N = strlen(txt); /* A loop to slide pat[] one by one */ for (int i = 0; i <= N - M; i++) { int j; /* For current index i, check for pattern match */ for (j = 0; j < M; j++) { if (txt[i + j] != pat[j]) break; } if (j == M) // if pat[0...M-1] = txt[i, i+1, ...i+M-1] { printf("Pattern found at index %d \n", i); } } } /* Driver program to test above function */ int main() { char *txt = "Happy Codings - C++ Programming Language Code Examples"; char *pat = "Codings"; search(pat, txt); return 0; }

Relational operators for string. Performs the appropriate comparison operation between the string objects lhs and rhs. The functions use string::compare for the comparison. These operators are overloaded in header <string>. If strings are compared using relational operators then, their characters are compared lexicographically according to the current character traits, means it starts comparison character by character starting from the first character until the characters in both strings are equal or a NULL character is encountered.

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop. A loop inside another loop is called a nested loop. The depth of nested loop depends on the complexity of a problem. We can have any number of nested loops as required. Consider a nested loop where the outer loop runs n times and consists of another loop inside it. The inner loop runs m times. Then, the total number of times the inner loop runs during the program execution is n*m.

Strings are objects that represent sequences of characters. The standard string class provides support for such objects with an interface similar to that of a standard container of bytes, but adding features specifically designed to operate with strings of single-byte characters. The string class is an instantiation of the basic_string class template that uses char (i.e., bytes) as its character type, with its default char_traits and allocator types. Note that this class handles bytes independently of the encoding used: If used to handle sequences of multi-byte or variable-length characters (such as UTF-8), all members of this class (such as length or size), as well as its iterators, will still operate in terms of bytes (not actual encoded characters).

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Get string length. Returns the length of the C string str. C++ strlen() is an inbuilt function that is used to calculate the length of the string. It is a beneficial method to find the length of the string. The strlen() function is defined under the string.h header file. The strlen() takes a null-terminated byte string str as its argument and returns its length. The length does not include a null character. If there is no null character in the string, the behavior of the function is undefined.

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

Break statement in C++ is a loop control statement defined using the break keyword. It is used to stop the current execution and proceed with the next one. When a compiler calls the break statement, it immediately stops the execution of the loop and transfers the control outside the loop and executes the other statements. In the case of a nested loop, break the statement stops the execution of the inner loop and proceeds with the outer loop. The statement itself says it breaks the loop. When the break statement is called in the program, it immediately terminates the loop and transfers the flow control to the statement mentioned outside the loop.

Search range for subsequence. Searches the range [first1,last1) for the first occurrence of the sequence defined by [first2,last2), and returns an iterator to its first element, or last1 if no occurrences are found. The elements in both ranges are compared sequentially using operator== (or pred, in version (2)): A subsequence of [first1,last1) is considered a match only when this is true for all the elements of [first2,last2). This function returns the first of such occurrences. For an algorithm that returns the last instead, see find_end. The function shall not modify any of its arguments.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

Algorithm finds the median of 2 sorted arrays using binary search approach. Takes the input of 'n' Data Elements of both the arrays. Using decrease, conquer method find the combined

If graph has no "Odd Degree Vertex", there is at least one "Eulerian Circuit". If graph as two vertices with odd degree, there is no Eulerian Circuit but at least one Eulerian Path. If graph

A 'stack' is a basic "data structure" and can be defined in an 'Abstract', implementation-free manner, or it can be "Generally Defined" as a Linear List of items in which all additions and

This C++ Program checks whether a directed graph is weakly connected or not. We can do "DFS" V times starting from every vertex. If any DFS, doesn't visit all vertices, then graph