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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Visual C++ 5.0 Standard C++ Library Code Examples

Multiset temp swap - Swaps the contents of container ms1 with contents

Multiset temp swap - Swaps the contents of container ms1 with contents swap Header <set> template<class T, class A> void swap(const multiset<T, A>&ms1, const multiset<T, A>&ms2) ; Swaps the contents of container ms1 with contents of container ms2. The function uses the following to swap the contents: ms1.swap(ms2) Sample #include <set> #include <iostream> int main() { std::multiset<int> c1, c2, c3, c4 ; int i ; for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) { c1.insert(i) ; c2.insert(i*i) ; c3.insert(i*i*i) ; c4.insert(i) ; } if (c1 == c4) std::cout << "c1 == c4" << std::endl ; if (c2 != c3) std::cout << "c2 != c3" << std::endl ; if(c2 < c3) std::cout << "c2 < c3" << std::endl ; if(c3 > c2) std::cout << "c3 > c2" << std::endl ; c4.insert(29) ; if (c1 <= c4) std::cout << "after c4.insert(29), c1 <= c4" << std::endl ; if (c3 >= c2) std::cout << "c3 >= c2" << std::endl ; std::swap(c3, c2) ; std::cout << "after swapping c3 with c2, " ; if (c3 >= c2) std::cout << "c3 >= c2" << std::endl ; else std::cout << "c3 < c2" << std::endl ; return 0 ; } Program Output c1 == c4 c2 != c3 c2 < c3 c3 > c2 after c4.insert(29), c1 <= c4 c3 >= c2 after swapping c3 with c2, c3 < c2

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.

C++ Multiset operator== is a non-member overloaded function of multiset in C++. This function is used to check whether the two multisets are equal or not. Comparison between multiset objects is based on a pair wise comparison of the elements. Two multisets are equal if they have the same number of elements and their corresponding elements have the same values. Otherwise, they are not equal. It returns true if the left side of the multiset object is equal to the right side of the multiset object otherwise, false.

In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement, The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.

Exchange values of two objects. Exchanges the values of a and b. C++ Utility swap() function swaps or say interchanges the values of two containers under reference. The function std::swap() is a built-in function in the C++ Standard Template Library (STL) which swaps the value of two variables. This function does not return any value.

Multiple-key set. Multisets are containers that store elements following a specific order, and where multiple elements can have equivalent values. Multisets are part of the C++ STL (Standard Template Library). Multisets are the associative containers like Set that stores sorted values (the value is itself the key, of type T), but unlike Set which store only unique keys, multiset can have duplicate keys. By default it uses < operator to compare the keys. The value of the elements in a multiset can be inserted or deleted but cannot be altered (The elements are always const). In a multiset, the value of an element also identifies it (the value is itself the key, of type T). The value of the elements in a multiset cannot be modified once in the container (the elements are always const), but they can be inserted or removed from the container.

Swap content. Exchanges the content of the container by the content of x, which is another multiset of the same type. Sizes may differ. After the call to this member function, the elements in this container are those which were in x before the call, and the elements of x are those which were in this. All iterators, references and pointers remain valid for the swapped objects. Notice that a non-member function exists with the same name, swap, overloading that algorithm with an optimization that behaves like this member function. Whether the internal container allocators are swapped is not defined, unless in the case the appropriate allocator trait indicates explicitly that they shall propagate. The internal comparison objects are always exchanged, using swap.

Relational operators for multiset Performs the appropriate comparison operation between the multiset containers lhs and rhs. The equality comparison (operator==) is performed by first comparing sizes, and if they match, the elements are compared sequentially using operator==, stopping at the first mismatch (as if using algorithm equal). The less-than comparison (operator<) behaves as if using algorithm lexicographical_compare, which compares the elements sequentially using operator< in a reciprocal manner (i.e., checking both a<b and b<a) and stopping at the first occurrence.

Insert element. Extends the container by inserting new elements, effectively increasing the container size by the number of elements inserted. Internally, multiset containers keep all their elements sorted following the criterion specified by its comparison object. The elements are always inserted in its respective position following this ordering. The relative ordering of equivalent elements is preserved, and newly inserted elements follow their equivalents already in the container. The parameters determine how many elements are inserted and to which values they are initialized: The function optimizes its insertion time if position points to the element that will follow the inserted element (or to the end, if it would be the last). Notice that this is just a hint and does not force the new element to be inserted at that position within the multiset container (the elements in a multiset always follow a specific order).

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.

Creating double link list. and Insertion at the beginning. Insertion of element at particular position. "Deletion" of element from the List. 'Display' elements of doubly link list. Reverse

This is a C++ Program code to check whether graph is DAG. In mathematics and computer science, a directed acyclic graph, is a directed graph with no directed cycles. It is formed by

To store Student details like student 'name', student 'roll num', 'student age'. You have 2 ways to do it, one way is to create different variables for each data, but the downfall of

"Constructor" is automatically called when an object create. It is "special member function" of the class. Variable declaration, constructor without argument, and which constructor has