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C++ Programming Code Examples

C++ > Visual C++ 5.0 Standard C++ Library Code Examples

Set temp swap - Swaps the contents of container s1 with

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Set temp swap - Swaps the contents of container s1 with swap Header <set> template<class T, class A> void swap(const set<T, A>&s1, const set<T, A>&s2) ; Swaps the contents of container s1 with contents of container s2. The function uses the following to swap the contents: s1.swap(s2) Sample #include <set> #include <iostream> int main() { std::set<int> c1, c2, c3, c4 ; int i ; for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) { c1.insert(i) ; c2.insert(i*i) ; c3.insert(i*i*i) ; c4.insert(i) ; } if (c1 == c4) std::cout << "c1 == c4" << std::endl ; if (c2 != c3) std::cout << "c2 != c3" << std::endl ; if(c2 < c3) std::cout << "c2 < c3" << std::endl ; if(c3 > c2) std::cout << "c3 > c2" << std::endl ; c4.insert(29) ; if (c1 <= c4) std::cout << "after c4.insert(29), c1 <= c4" << std::endl ; if (c3 >= c2) std::cout << "c3 >= c2" << std::endl ; std::swap(c3, c2) ; std::cout << "after swapping c3 with c2, " ; if (c3 >= c2) std::cout << "c3 >= c2" << std::endl ; else std::cout << "c3 < c2" << std::endl ; return 0 ; } Program Output c1 == c4 c2 != c3 c2 < c3 c3 > c2 after c4.insert(29), c1 <= c4 c3 >= c2 after swapping c3 with c2, c3 < c2
Sets in C++ Language
Sets are part of the C++ STL (Standard Template Library). Sets are the associative containers that stores sorted key, in which each key is unique and it can be inserted or deleted but cannot be altered. Sets are containers that store unique elements following a specific order. In a set, the value of an element also identifies it (the value is itself the key, of type T), and each value must be unique. The value of the elements in a set cannot be modified once in the container (the elements are always const), but they can be inserted or removed from the container. Internally, the elements in a set are always sorted following a specific strict weak ordering criterion indicated by its internal comparison object (of type Compare). set containers are generally slower than unordered_set containers to access individual elements by their key, but they allow the direct iteration on subsets based on their order. Sets are typically implemented as binary search trees.
Syntax for Sets in C++
template < class T, // set::key_type/value_type class Compare = less<T>, // set::key_compare/value_compare class Alloc = allocator<T> // set::allocator_type > class set;
T
Type of the elements. Each element in a set container is also uniquely identified by this value (each value is itself also the element's key). Aliased as member types set::key_type and set::value_type.
Compare
A binary predicate that takes two arguments of the same type as the elements and returns a bool. The expression comp(a,b), where comp is an object of this type and a and b are key values, shall return true if a is considered to go before b in the strict weak ordering the function defines. The set object uses this expression to determine both the order the elements follow in the container and whether two element keys are equivalent (by comparing them reflexively: they are equivalent if !comp(a,b) && !comp(b,a)). No two elements in a set container can be equivalent. This can be a function pointer or a function object (see constructor for an example). This defaults to less<T>, which returns the same as applying the less-than operator (a<b). Aliased as member types set::key_compare and set::value_compare.
Alloc
Type of the allocator object used to define the storage allocation model. By default, the allocator class template is used, which defines the simplest memory allocation model and is value-independent. Aliased as member type set::allocator_type. Container properties: • Associative - Elements in associative containers are referenced by their key and not by their absolute position in the container. • Ordered - The elements in the container follow a strict order at all times. All inserted elements are given a position in this order. • Set - The value of an element is also the key used to identify it. • Unique keys - No two elements in the container can have equivalent keys. • Allocator-aware - The container uses an allocator object to dynamically handle its storage needs. Member Functions for Sets Below is the list of all member functions of Set: • (constructor): Construct set. • (destructor): Set destructor. • operator=: Copy elements of the set to another set. • begin: Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the set. • cbegin: Returns a const iterator pointing to the first element in the set. • end: Returns an iterator pointing to the past-end. • cend: Returns a constant iterator pointing to the past-end. • rbegin: Returns a reverse iterator pointing to the end. • rend: Returns a reverse iterator pointing to the beginning. • crbegin: Returns a constant reverse iterator pointing to the end. • crend: Returns a constant reverse iterator pointing to the beginning. • empty: Returns true if set is empty. • size: Returns the number of elements in the set. • max_size: Returns the maximum size of the set. • insert: Insert element in the set. • erase: Erase elements from the set. • swap: Exchange the content of the set. • clear: Delete all the elements of the set. • emplace: Construct and insert the new elements into the set. • emplace_hint: Construct and insert new elements into the set by hint. • key_comp: Return a copy of key comparison object. • value_comp: Return a copy of value comparison object. • find: Search for an element with given key. • count: Gets the number of elements matching with given key. • lower_bound: Returns an iterator to lower bound. • upper_bound: Returns an iterator to upper bound. • equal_range: Returns the range of elements matches with given key. • get_allocator: Returns an allocator object that is used to construct the set. • operator==: Checks whether the two sets are equal or not. • operator!=: Checks whether the two sets are equal or not. • operator<: Checks whether the first set is less than other or not. • operator<=: Checks whether the first set is less than or equal to other or not. • operator>: Checks whether the first set is greater than other or not. • operator>=: Checks whether the first set is greater than equal to other or not. • swap(): Exchanges the element of two sets.
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/* A set is an Associative container which contains a sorted set of unique objects of type Key. Each element may occur only once, so duplicates are not allowed. */ #include<bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; int main() { set < int > s; // inserting elements in random order . s.insert( 60 ) ; s.insert( 10 ) ; s.insert( 20 ) ; s.insert( 20 ) ; s.insert( 40 ) ; s.insert( 50 ) ; // printing set s //initialising the iterator, iterating to the beginning of the set. set<int >::iterator it ; cout << "The element of set s are : \n"; for (it = s.begin() ; it != s.end() ; it++ ) { cout << *it<<" "; } cout << endl; cout<< "The size of set : \n " << s.size() <<endl ; return 0 ; }
For Loop Statement in C++
In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a block of code. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration. When you know exactly how many times you want to loop through a block of code, use the for loop instead of a while loop. A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.
Syntax of For Loop Statement in C++
for (initialization; condition; update) { // body of-loop }
initialization
initializes variables and is executed only once.
condition
if true, the body of for loop is executed, if false, the for loop is terminated.
update
updates the value of initialized variables and again checks the condition. A new range-based for loop was introduced to work with collections such as arrays and vectors.
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/* For Loop Statement in C++ Language */ // C++ program to find the sum of first n natural numbers // positive integers such as 1,2,3,...n are known as natural numbers #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int num, sum; sum = 0; cout << "Enter a positive integer: "; cin >> num; for (int i = 1; i <= num; ++i) { sum += i; } cout << "Sum = " << sum << endl; return 0; }
Set Library insert() Function in C++
Insert element. Extends the container by inserting new elements, effectively increasing the container size by the number of elements inserted. Because elements in a set are unique, the insertion operation checks whether each inserted element is equivalent to an element already in the container, and if so, the element is not inserted, returning an iterator to this existing element (if the function returns a value). The C++ set::insert function is used to insert new elements in the container. This results into increasing the set size by the number of elements inserted. As the elements in a set are unique, therefore the insertion operation first checks if the inserted element is unique to the set then the element is inserted. For a similar container allowing for duplicate elements, see multiset. Internally, set containers keep all their elements sorted following the criterion specified by its comparison object. The elements are always inserted in its respective position following this ordering. The parameters determine how many elements are inserted and to which values they are initialized:
Syntax for Set insert() Function in C++
#include <set> //single element (1) pair<iterator,bool> insert (const value_type& val); pair<iterator,bool> insert (value_type&& val); //with hint (2) iterator insert (const_iterator position, const value_type& val); iterator insert (const_iterator position, value_type&& val); //range (3) template <class InputIterator> void insert (InputIterator first, InputIterator last); //initializer list (4) void insert (initializer_list<value_type> il);
val
Value to be copied (or moved) to the inserted elements. Member type value_type is the type of the elements in the container, defined in set as an alias of its first template parameter (T).
position
Hint for the position where the element can be inserted. The function optimizes its insertion time if position points to the element that will follow the inserted element (or to the end, if it would be the last). Notice that this is just a hint and does not force the new element to be inserted at that position within the set container (the elements in a set always follow a specific order). Member types iterator and const_iterator are defined in map as a bidirectional iterator type that point to elements.
first, last
Iterators specifying a range of elements. Copies of the elements in the range [first,last) are inserted in the container. Notice that the range includes all the elements between first and last, including the element pointed by first but not the one pointed by last. The function template argument InputIterator shall be an input iterator type that points to elements of a type from which value_type objects can be constructed.
il
An initializer_list object. Copies of these elements are inserted. These objects are automatically constructed from initializer list declarators. Member type value_type is the type of the elements in the container, defined in set as an alias of its first template parameter (T). The single element versions (1) return a pair, with its member pair::first set to an iterator pointing to either the newly inserted element or to the equivalent element already in the set. The pair::second element in the pair is set to true if a new element was inserted or false if an equivalent element already existed. The versions with a hint (2) return an iterator pointing to either the newly inserted element or to the element that already had its same value in the set. Member type iterator is a bidirectional iterator type that points to elements. pair is a class template declared in <utility> (see pair).
Complexity
If a single element is inserted, logarithmic in size in general, but amortized constant if a hint is given and the position given is the optimal. If N elements are inserted, Nlog(size+N). Implementations may optimize if the range is already sorted.
Iterator validity
No changes.
Data races
The container is modified. Concurrently accessing existing elements is safe, although iterating ranges in the container is not.
Exception safety
If a single element is to be inserted, there are no changes in the container in case of exception (strong guarantee). Otherwise, the container is guaranteed to end in a valid state (basic guarantee). If allocator_traits::construct is not supported with the appropriate arguments for the element constructions, or if an invalid position is specified, it causes undefined behavior.
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/* insert new elements in the container by set::insert function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <set> using namespace std; int main (){ set<int> set1 = {10, 20, 30}; set<int> set2 = {10, 20, 30}; set<int>::iterator it; //single element version set1.insert(55); //single element with hint version it = set2.begin(); set2.insert(++it, 15); cout<<"set1 contains: "; for(it = set1.begin(); it != set1.end(); ++it) cout<<*it<<" "; cout<<"\nset2 contains: "; for(it = set2.begin(); it != set2.end(); ++it) cout<<*it<<" "; return 0; }
Utility Library swap() Function in C++
Exchange values of two objects. Exchanges the values of a and b. C++ Utility swap() function swaps or say interchanges the values of two containers under reference. The function std::swap() is a built-in function in the C++ Standard Template Library (STL) which swaps the value of two variables.
Syntax for Utility swap() Function in C++
#include <utility> //non-array (1) template <class T> void swap (T& a, T& b) noexcept (is_nothrow_move_constructible<T>::value && is_nothrow_move_assignable<T>::value); //array (2) template <class T, size_t N> void swap(T (&a)[N], T (&b)[N]) noexcept (noexcept(swap(*a,*b)));
a, b
Two objects, whose contents are swapped. Type T shall be move-constructible and move-assignable (or have swap defined for it, for version (2)). This function does not return any value. Many components of the standard library (within std) call swap in an unqualified manner to allow custom overloads for non-fundamental types to be called instead of this generic version: Custom overloads of swap declared in the same namespace as the type for which they are provided get selected through argument-dependent lookup over this generic version.
Complexity
Non-array: Constant: Performs exactly one construction and two assignments (although notice that each of these operations works on its own complexity). Array: Linear in N: performs a swap operation per element.
Data races
Both a and b are modified.
Exceptions
Throws if the construction or assignment of type T throws. Never throws if T is nothrow-move-constructible and nothrow-move-assignable. Note that if T does not fulfill the requirements specified above (in parameters), it causes undefined behavior.
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/* std::swap() is a built-in function in C++'s Standard Template Library. The function takes two values as input and swaps them. */ /* Exchange values of two objects by swap() function code example */ #include <utility> #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int even[] = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}; int odd[] = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}; // before std::cout << "odd: "; for(int x: odd) { std::cout << x << ' '; } std::cout << '\n'; std::cout << "even: "; for(int x: even) { std::cout << x << ' '; } std::cout << "\n\n"; // swapping arrays odd and even swap(odd, even); // after std::cout << "odd: "; for(int x: odd) { std::cout << x << ' '; } std::cout << '\n'; std::cout << "even: "; for(int x: even) { std::cout << x << ' '; } std::cout << '\n'; }
#include Directive in C++
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program.
Syntax for #include Directive in C++
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories. Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor. • In #include directive, comments are not recognized. So in case of #include <a//b>, a//b is treated as filename. • In #include directive, backslash is considered as normal text not escape sequence. So in case of #include <a\nb>, a\nb is treated as filename. • You can use only comment after filename otherwise it will give error.
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/* using #include directive in C language */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { /* * C standard library printf function * defined in the stdio.h header file */ printf("I love you Clementine"); printf("I love you so much"); printf("HappyCodings"); return 0; }
If Else Statement in C++
In computer programming, we use the if statement to run a block code only when a certain condition is met. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. There are three forms of if...else statements in C++: • if statement, • if...else statement, • if...else if...else statement,
Syntax for If Statement in C++
if (condition) { // body of if statement }
The if statement evaluates the condition inside the parentheses ( ). If the condition evaluates to true, the code inside the body of if is executed. If the condition evaluates to false, the code inside the body of if is skipped.
Syntax for If...Else Statement
if (condition) { // block of code if condition is true } else { // block of code if condition is false }
The if..else statement evaluates the condition inside the parenthesis. If the condition evaluates true, the code inside the body of if is executed, the code inside the body of else is skipped from execution. If the condition evaluates false, the code inside the body of else is executed, the code inside the body of if is skipped from execution. The if...else statement is used to execute a block of code among two alternatives. However, if we need to make a choice between more than two alternatives, we use the if...else if...else statement.
Syntax for If...Else...Else If Statement in C++
if (condition1) { // code block 1 } else if (condition2){ // code block 2 } else { // code block 3 }
• If condition1 evaluates to true, the code block 1 is executed. • If condition1 evaluates to false, then condition2 is evaluated. • If condition2 is true, the code block 2 is executed. • If condition2 is false, the code block 3 is executed. There can be more than one else if statement but only one if and else statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
Syntax for If Else If Ladder in C++
if (condition) statement 1; else if (condition) statement 2; . . else statement;
Working of the if-else-if ladder: 1. Control falls into the if block. 2. The flow jumps to Condition 1. 3. Condition is tested. If Condition yields true, goto Step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 5. 4. The present block is executed. Goto Step 7. 5. The flow jumps to Condition 2. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, goto Step 6. 6. The flow jumps to Condition 3. If Condition yields true, goto step 4. If Condition yields false, execute else block. Goto Step 7. 7. Exits the if-else-if ladder. • The if else ladder statement in C++ programming language is used to check set of conditions in sequence. • This is useful when we want to selectively executes one code block(out of many) based on certain conditions. • It allows us to check for multiple condition expressions and execute different code blocks for more than two conditions. • A condition expression is tested only when all previous if conditions in if-else ladder is false. • If any of the conditional expression evaluates to true, then it will execute the corresponding code block and exits whole if-else ladder.
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/* If Else Statement in C++ Language */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // local variable declaration: int a = 100; // check the boolean condition if( a < 20 ) { // if condition is true then print the following cout << "a is less than 20;" << endl; } else { // if condition is false then print the following cout << "a is not less than 20;" << endl; } cout << "value of a is : " << a << endl; return 0; }
main() Function in C++
A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program in hosted environment. main() function is the entry point of any C++ program. It is the point at which execution of program is started. When a C++ program is executed, the execution control goes directly to the main() function. Every C++ program have a main() function.
Syntax for main() Function in C++
void main() { ............ ............ }
void
void is a keyword in C++ language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value.
main
main is a name of function which is predefined function in C++ library. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value. 1) It cannot be used anywhere in the program a) in particular, it cannot be called recursively b) its address cannot be taken 2) It cannot be predefined and cannot be overloaded: effectively, the name main in the global namespace is reserved for functions (although it can be used to name classes, namespaces, enumerations, and any entity in a non-global namespace, except that a function called "main" cannot be declared with C language linkage in any namespace). 3) It cannot be defined as deleted or (since C++11) declared with C language linkage, constexpr (since C++11), consteval (since C++20), inline, or static. 4) The body of the main function does not need to contain the return statement: if control reaches the end of main without encountering a return statement, the effect is that of executing return 0;. 5) Execution of the return (or the implicit return upon reaching the end of main) is equivalent to first leaving the function normally (which destroys the objects with automatic storage duration) and then calling std::exit with the same argument as the argument of the return. (std::exit then destroys static objects and terminates the program). 6) (since C++14) The return type of the main function cannot be deduced (auto main() {... is not allowed). 7) (since C++20) The main function cannot be a coroutine.
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/* simple code example by main() function in C++ */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int day = 4; switch (day) { case 1: cout << "Monday"; break; case 2: cout << "Tuesday"; break; case 3: cout << "Wednesday"; break; case 4: cout << "Thursday"; break; case 5: cout << "Friday"; break; case 6: cout << "Saturday"; break; case 7: cout << "Sunday"; break; } return 0; }
Set Library swap() Function in C++
Swap content. Exchanges the content of the container by the content of x, which is another set of the same type. Sizes may differ. swap() function is used to exchange the contents of two sets but the sets must be of same type, although sizes may differ. After the call to this member function, the elements in this container are those which were in x before the call, and the elements of x are those which were in this. All iterators, references and pointers remain valid for the swapped objects. Notice that a non-member function exists with the same name, swap, overloading that algorithm with an optimization that behaves like this member function.
Syntax for Set swap() Function in C++
#include <set> void swap (set& x);
x
Another set container of the same type as this (i.e., with the same template parameters, T, Compare and Alloc) whose content is swapped with that of this container. Function returns none. Whether the internal container allocators are swapped is not defined, unless in the case the appropriate allocator trait indicates explicitly that they shall propagate. The internal comparison objects are always exchanged, using swap.
Complexity
Constant
Iterator validity
All iterators, pointers and references referring to elements in both containers remain valid, but now are referring to elements in the other container, and iterate in it. Note that the end iterators do not refer to elements and may be invalidated.
Data races
Both the container and x are modified. No contained elements are accessed by the call (although see iterator validity above).
Exception safety
If the allocators in both containers compare equal, or if their allocator traits indicate that the allocators shall propagate, the function never throws exceptions (no-throw guarantee). Otherwise, it causes undefined behavior.
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/* swap() function is used to exchange the contents of two sets but the sets must be of same type, although sizes may differ. */ /* swap (or exchange) the content of two sets by set swap() function code example. */ #include <iostream> #include <set> using namespace std; int main () { int myints[] = {10,20,30,40,50,60}; set<int> first (myints,myints+3); set<int> second (myints+3,myints+6); first.swap(second); cout << "first set contains:"; for (set<int>::iterator it = first.begin(); it!=first.end(); ++it) cout << ' ' << *it; cout << '\n'; cout << "second set contains:"; for (set<int>::iterator it = second.begin(); it!=second.end(); ++it) cout << ' ' << *it; cout << '\n'; return 0; }
Set Relational Operators in C++
Relational operators for set. Performs the appropriate comparison operation between the set containers lhs and rhs. The equality comparison (operator==) is performed by first comparing sizes, and if they match, the elements are compared sequentially using operator==, stopping at the first mismatch (as if using algorithm equal). The less-than comparison (operator<) behaves as if using algorithm lexicographical_compare, which compares the elements sequentially using operator< in a reciprocal manner (i.e., checking both a<b and b<a) and stopping at the first occurrence.
Syntax for Set Relational Operators in C++
#include <set> //(1) template <class T, class Compare, class Alloc> bool operator== ( const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& lhs, const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& rhs ); //(2) template <class T, class Compare, class Alloc> bool operator!= ( const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& lhs, const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& rhs ); //(3) template <class T, class Compare, class Alloc> bool operator< ( const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& lhs, const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& rhs ); //(4) template <class T, class Compare, class Alloc> bool operator<= ( const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& lhs, const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& rhs ); //(5) template <class T, class Compare, class Alloc> bool operator> ( const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& lhs, const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& rhs ); //(6) template <class T, class Compare, class Alloc> bool operator>= ( const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& lhs, const set<T,Compare,Alloc>& rhs );
lhs, rhs
set containers (to the left- and right-hand side of the operator, respectively), having both the same template parameters (T, Compare and Alloc). The other operations also use the operators == and < internally to compare the elements, behaving as if the following equivalent operations were performed: operation and equivalent operation • a!=b !(a==b) • a>b b<a • a<=b !(b<a) • a>=b !(a<b) Notice that none of these operations take into consideration the internal comparison object of neither container. These operators are overloaded in header <set>. Function returns true if the condition holds, and false otherwise.
Complexity
For (1) and (2), constant if the sizes of lhs and rhs differ, and up to linear in that size (equality comparisons) otherwise. For the others, up to linear in the smaller size (each representing two comparisons with operator<).
Iterator validity
No changes
Data races
Both containers, lhs and rhs, are accessed. Concurrently accessing the elements of unmodified set objects is always safe (their elements are immutable).
Exception safety
If the type of the elements supports the appropriate operation with no-throw guarantee, the function never throws exceptions (no-throw guarantee). In any case, the function cannot modify its arguments.
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/* Performs the appropriate comparison operation between the set containers by set relational operators code example */ #include <set> #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { set<string> m2; typedef set<string> login; m2 = {"[email protected]"} ; //stored id and password string password; login m1; cout<<"---------Login----------"<<endl<<endl; cout<<"Enter password: \n"; cin>> password; // Get value m1.insert(password); // Put them in set cout<<"Password you have entered: \n"; for (auto it = m1.begin(); it != m1.end(); it++) { cout << (*it)<< endl; } cout<<"Password stored in the system :\n"; for (auto it = m2.begin(); it != m2.end(); it++) { cout << (*it)<< endl; } if (m1 >= m2) cout << "\nWelcome to your Page..." << endl; else cout << "\nIncorrect Password..." << endl; return 0; }


Return a pseudorandom int, and change the internal state. Return a "pseudorandom" int, and change the internal state. does not work. Return a "pseudorandom" double in the open
This C++ program sample sort the given data using Selection Sort. Selection sort algorithm sort data by comparing one element to every other element & decide its position. The time